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Review

Regulation of Energy Substrate Metabolism in Endurance Exercise

1
Lifestyle and Health Research Center, Health Sciences Research Center, Princess Nourah bInt. Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 84428, Saudi Arabia
2
Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Laboratory Medicine Department, Umm Al-Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah 7607, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joseph Marino
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094963
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 24 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 7 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Muscle Mass, Exercise, Metabolism)
The human body requires energy to function. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the cellular currency for energy-requiring processes including mechanical work (i.e., exercise). ATP used by the cells is ultimately derived from the catabolism of energy substrate molecules—carbohydrates, fat, and protein. In prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise, there is a delicate interplay between carbohydrate and fat metabolism, and this bioenergetic process is tightly regulated by numerous physiological, nutritional, and environmental factors such as exercise intensity and duration, body mass and feeding state. Carbohydrate metabolism is of critical importance during prolonged endurance-type exercise, reflecting the physiological need to regulate glucose homeostasis, assuring optimal glycogen storage, proper muscle fuelling, and delaying the onset of fatigue. Fat metabolism represents a sustainable source of energy to meet energy demands and preserve the ‘limited’ carbohydrate stores. Coordinated neural, hormonal and circulatory events occur during prolonged endurance-type exercise, facilitating the delivery of fatty acids from adipose tissue to the working muscle for oxidation. However, with increasing exercise intensity, fat oxidation declines and is unable to supply ATP at the rate of the exercise demand. Protein is considered a subsidiary source of energy supporting carbohydrates and fat metabolism, contributing to approximately 10% of total ATP turnover during prolonged endurance-type exercise. In this review we present an overview of substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance-type exercise and the regulatory mechanisms involved in ATP turnover to meet the energetic demands of exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy; metabolism; carbohydrate; protein; fat; endurance exercise energy; metabolism; carbohydrate; protein; fat; endurance exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alghannam, A.F.; Ghaith, M.M.; Alhussain, M.H. Regulation of Energy Substrate Metabolism in Endurance Exercise. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4963. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094963

AMA Style

Alghannam AF, Ghaith MM, Alhussain MH. Regulation of Energy Substrate Metabolism in Endurance Exercise. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4963. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094963

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alghannam, Abdullah F., Mazen M. Ghaith, and Maha H. Alhussain 2021. "Regulation of Energy Substrate Metabolism in Endurance Exercise" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4963. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094963

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