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Article

Is Youth Smoking Related to the Density and Proximity of Outdoor Tobacco Advertising Near Schools? Evidence from Indonesia

1
Public Health Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Semarang 50131, Indonesia
2
Health Information Management Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Semarang 50131, Indonesia
3
Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
4
Centre for Health Economics & Policy Innovation, Imperial College Business School, London SW7 2AZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alan Mathios and Donald Kenkel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052556
Received: 7 February 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cigarettes and Tobacco Advertising)
Background: Smoking was among the top contributors to deaths and disability as the prevalence among male adults remains high, and that among male youth increases in Indonesia. While local studies have shown high visibility of outdoor tobacco advertising around schools, the country still has no outdoor tobacco advertising ban. Objective: To examine the association between youth smoking behavior and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Indonesia. Methods: We combined two primary data sources, including outdoor tobacco advertising and smoking behavior among male youth in Semarang city. We randomly selected and interviewed 400 male students at 20 high schools in the city. In addition, we interviewed 492 male adults who lived near the schools for comparison. Results: We found significant associations between smoking use among youth (but not among adults) and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Semarang city. Youth at schools with medium and high density of outdoor tobacco advertising were up to 2.16 times more likely to smoke, compared to those with low density. Similarly, youth at senior high schools with proximity to outdoor tobacco advertising were 2.8 times more likely to smoke. Also, young people at poorer-neighborhood schools with a higher density of and proximity to outdoor tobacco advertising were up to 5.16 times more likely to smoke. Conclusions: There were significant associations between smoking use among male youth (but not among male adults) and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Indonesia. This highlights the need to introduce an outdoor tobacco advertising ban effectively, at least near schools. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescent; smoking; tobacco; advertising; built environment; Indonesia adolescent; smoking; tobacco; advertising; built environment; Indonesia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Handayani, S.; Rachmani, E.; Saptorini, K.K.; Manglapy, Y.M.; Nurjanah; Ahsan, A.; Kusuma, D. Is Youth Smoking Related to the Density and Proximity of Outdoor Tobacco Advertising Near Schools? Evidence from Indonesia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2556. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052556

AMA Style

Handayani S, Rachmani E, Saptorini KK, Manglapy YM, Nurjanah, Ahsan A, Kusuma D. Is Youth Smoking Related to the Density and Proximity of Outdoor Tobacco Advertising Near Schools? Evidence from Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2556. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052556

Chicago/Turabian Style

Handayani, Sri, Enny Rachmani, Kriswiharsi K. Saptorini, Yusthin M. Manglapy, Nurjanah, Abdillah Ahsan, and Dian Kusuma. 2021. "Is Youth Smoking Related to the Density and Proximity of Outdoor Tobacco Advertising Near Schools? Evidence from Indonesia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 5: 2556. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052556

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