Next Article in Journal
Relations between Child and Parent Fears and Changes in Family Functioning Related to COVID-19
Next Article in Special Issue
Needs of Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Geographic Location of Emergency Shelters Suitable for Vulnerable People during a Tsunami
Previous Article in Journal
Groundwater Quality in Agricultural Lands Near a Rapidly Urbanized Area, South China
Article

Spatial Effects of Environmental Pollution on Healthcare Services: Evidence from China

by 1,2,* and 1,2,*
1
School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
2
Research Center for the Belt and Road Health Policy and Health Technology Assessment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041784
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environment on the Health and Wellbeing of People)
With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization in China, environmental issues have become an urgent problem, especially issues related to air, water, and solid-waste pollution. These pollutants pose threats to the health of the population and to that of communities and have a vicious influence on the healthcare system. Additionally, pollution also exhibits spill-over effects, which means that pollution in the local region could affect the healthcare services in a neighboring region. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the relationship between pollution and healthcare. A spatial autocorrelation analysis was conducted and spatial panel econometric models were constructed to explore the characteristics of pollution and healthcare services in China and the relationship between them using data on all 31 provinces over 12 consecutive years (2006–2017). The results showed that the utilization of healthcare services and environmental pollution were not randomly distributed; unsurprisingly, air pollution and solid-waste pollution were mainly found in parts of northern China, while water pollution was highest in southern and coastal China. In addition, environmental pollution exhibited spill-over effects on healthcare services. For example, a 1% increase in solid waste in one specific geographical unit was estimated to increase the inpatient visits per capita in adjacent counties by 0.559%. Specifically, pollution showed different degrees of influence on healthcare services, which means that the impact of environmental pollution on the number of outpatient visits is greater than on the number of inpatient visits. Our results provide the government with evidence for effectively formulating and promulgating policies, especially policies aimed at tackling spill-over effects among different regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial effects; environmental pollution; healthcare services spatial effects; environmental pollution; healthcare services
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, N.; Mao, Y. Spatial Effects of Environmental Pollution on Healthcare Services: Evidence from China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1784. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041784

AMA Style

Zhang N, Mao Y. Spatial Effects of Environmental Pollution on Healthcare Services: Evidence from China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1784. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041784

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Ning, and Ying Mao. 2021. "Spatial Effects of Environmental Pollution on Healthcare Services: Evidence from China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1784. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041784

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop