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Article

Predictors of Athlete’s Performance in Ultra-Endurance Mountain Races

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Department of Nursing and Nutrition, Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Spain
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Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
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Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland
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Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
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School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Egaleo, Greece
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Exercise Physiology Laboratory, 18450 Nikaia, Greece
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Grupo de Investigación en Derecho, Política y Sociedad, Universidad de la Costa, 080002 Barranquilla, Colombia
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Faculty of Sports Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Spain
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Grupo de Investigación en Cultura, Educación y Sociedad, Universidad de la Costa, 080002 Barranquilla, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ewan Thomas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030956
Received: 25 November 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness)
Background: In previous studies, ultra-endurance performance has been associated with training and psychological variables. However, performance under extreme conditions is understudied, mainly due to difficulties in making field measures. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the role of training, hydration, nutrition, oral health status, and stress-related psychological factors in athletes’ performance in ultra-endurance mountain events. Methods: We analyzed the variables of race time and training, hydration state, nutrition, oral health status, and stress-related psychological factors in 448 ultra-endurance mountain race finishers divided into three groups according to race length (less than 45 km, 45–90 km, and greater than 90 km), using a questionnaire. Results: Higher performance in ultra-endurance mountain races was associated with better oral health status and higher accumulative altitude covered per week as well as higher positive accumulative change of altitude per week during training. In longer distance races, experience, a larger volume of training, and better hydration/nutrition prior to the competition were associated with better performance. Conclusions: Ultra-endurance mountain athletes competing in longer races (>90 km) have more experience and follow harder training schedules compared with athletes competing in shorter distances. In longer races, a larger fluid intake before the competition was the single best predictor of performance. For races between 45 and 90 km, training intensity and volume were key predictors of performance, and for races below 45 km, oral health status was a key predictor of performance. Psychological factors previously reported as ultra-endurance mountain race performance predictors were inconsistent or failed to predict the performance of athletes in the present research. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychology; odontology; nutrition; training; stress; running psychology; odontology; nutrition; training; stress; running
MDPI and ACS Style

Belinchón-deMiguel, P.; Ruisoto, P.; Knechtle, B.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Herrera-Tapias, B.; Clemente-Suárez, V.J. Predictors of Athlete’s Performance in Ultra-Endurance Mountain Races. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030956

AMA Style

Belinchón-deMiguel P, Ruisoto P, Knechtle B, Nikolaidis PT, Herrera-Tapias B, Clemente-Suárez VJ. Predictors of Athlete’s Performance in Ultra-Endurance Mountain Races. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030956

Chicago/Turabian Style

Belinchón-deMiguel, Pedro, Pablo Ruisoto, Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beliña Herrera-Tapias, and Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez 2021. "Predictors of Athlete’s Performance in Ultra-Endurance Mountain Races" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 3: 956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030956

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