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Open AccessArticle

Is Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 Relevant to Childhood Kawasaki Disease?

by 1,†, 2,†, 1,3, 4, 2,* and 1,3,*
1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul 07804, Korea
2
Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul 07804, Korea
3
System Health & Engineering Major in Graduate School (BK21 Plus Program), Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07804, Korea
4
Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first author, these authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Sofia Sousa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030924
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vascular disease of unknown cause that affects the whole body. KD typically occurs in infants under the age of five and is found mainly in East Asian countries. Few studies have reported on the relationship between the pollutant PM2.5 and KD, and the evidence remains irrelevant or insufficient. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between short-term exposure to PM2.5 and KD hospitalizations using data from Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, 2006 to 2016. Methods: We obtained data from the hospital EMR (electronic medical records) system. We evaluated the relationship between short-term exposure to PM2.5 and KD hospitalizations using a case-crossover design. We considered exposures to PM2.5 two weeks before the date of KD hospitalization. We analyzed the data using a conditional logistic regression adjusted for temperature and humidity. The effect size was calculated as a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration. We performed a subgroup analysis by sex, season, age group, and region. In the two-pollutants model, we adjusted SO2, NO2, CO, and O3, but the effect size did not change. Results: A total of 771 KD cases were included in this study. We did not find any statistically significant relationship between PM2.5 and children’s KD hospitalization (two-day moving average: odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.95, 1.06; seven-day moving average: OR = 0.98, CI = 0.91, 1.06; 14-day moving average: OR = 0.93, CI = 0.82, 1.05). A subgroup analysis and two pollutant analysis also found no significant results. Conclusion: We did not find a statistically significant relationship between PM2.5 and children’s KD hospitalizations. More research is needed to clarify the association between air pollution, including PM2.5, and KD. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; children; Kawasaki disease; case-crossover design PM2.5; children; Kawasaki disease; case-crossover design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oh, J.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Kim, H.S.; Ha, E. Is Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 Relevant to Childhood Kawasaki Disease? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 924. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030924

AMA Style

Oh J, Lee JH, Kim E, Kim S, Kim HS, Ha E. Is Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 Relevant to Childhood Kawasaki Disease? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):924. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030924

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oh, Jongmin; Lee, Ji H.; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Soontae; Kim, Hae S.; Ha, Eunhee. 2021. "Is Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 Relevant to Childhood Kawasaki Disease?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 3: 924. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030924

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