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Open AccessArticle

Effects of PM2.5 on Third Grade Students’ Proficiency in Math and English Language Arts

1
Department of Sociology, University of Utah, 480 S 1530 E. Rm 0301, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
2
Department of Sociology/Environmental and Sustainability Studies, University of Utah, 480 S 1530 E. Room 0301, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
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Department of Geography/Environmental and Sustainability Studies, University of Utah, 260 Central Campus Dr #4625, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
4
Department of Atmospheric Sciences/City & Metropolitan Planning, University of Utah, 135 S 1460 E, Room 819, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186931
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 18 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
Fine particulate air pollution is harmful to children in myriad ways. While evidence is mounting that chronic exposures are associated with reduced academic proficiency, no research has examined the frequency of peak exposures. It is also unknown if pollution exposures influence academic proficiency to the same degree in all schools or if the level of children’s social disadvantage in schools modifies the effects, such that some schools’ academic proficiency levels are more sensitive to exposures. We address these gaps by examining the percentage of third grade students who tested below the grade level in math and English language arts (ELA) in Salt Lake County, Utah primary schools (n = 156), where fine particulate pollution is a serious health threat. More frequent peak exposures were associated with reduced math and ELA proficiency, as was greater school disadvantage. High frequency peak exposures were more strongly linked to lower math proficiency in more advantaged schools. Findings highlight the need for policies to reduce the number of days with peak air pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; PM2.5; environmental justice; primary schools; academic proficiency; Salt Lake County; Utah air pollution; PM2.5; environmental justice; primary schools; academic proficiency; Salt Lake County; Utah
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mullen, C.; Grineski, S.E.; Collins, T.W.; Mendoza, D.L. Effects of PM2.5 on Third Grade Students’ Proficiency in Math and English Language Arts. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6931.

AMA Style

Mullen C, Grineski SE, Collins TW, Mendoza DL. Effects of PM2.5 on Third Grade Students’ Proficiency in Math and English Language Arts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6931.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mullen, Casey; Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.; Mendoza, Daniel L. 2020. "Effects of PM2.5 on Third Grade Students’ Proficiency in Math and English Language Arts" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 18: 6931.

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