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Open AccessArticle

The Combined Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Preterm Birth in Seoul, 2010–2016

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul KS013, Korea
2
System Health & Engineering Major in Graduate School (BK21 Plus Program), Ewha Womans University, Seoul KS013, Korea
3
Informatization Department, Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital, Seoul KS013, Korea
4
Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, Incheon KS006, Korea
5
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul KS013, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Sofia Sousa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041463
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Impact on Children’s Health)
Background: Preterm birth contributes to the morbidity and mortality of newborns and infants. Recent studies have shown that maternal exposure to particulate matter and extreme temperatures results in immune dysfunction, which can induce preterm birth. This study aimed to evaluate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure, temperature, and preterm birth in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Methods: We used 2010–2016 birth data from Seoul, obtained from the Korea National Statistical Office Microdata. PM2.5 concentration data from Seoul were generated through the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Seoul temperature data were collected from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). The exposure period of PM2.5 and temperature were divided into the first (TR1), second (TR2), and third (TR3) trimesters of pregnancy. The mean PM2.5 concentration was used in units of ×10 µg/m3 and the mean temperature was divided into four categories based on quartiles. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth, as well as the combined effects of PM2.5 exposure and temperature on preterm birth. Result: In a model that includes three trimesters of PM2.5 and temperature data as exposures, which assumes an interaction between PM2.5 and temperature in each trimester, the risk of preterm birth was positively associated with TR1 PM2.5 exposure among pregnant women exposed to relatively low mean temperatures (<3.4 °C) during TR1 (OR 1.134, 95% CI 1.061–1.213, p < 0.001). Conclusions: When we assumed the interaction between PM2.5 exposure and temperature exposure, PM2.5 exposure during TR1 increased the risk of preterm birth among pregnant women exposed to low temperatures during TR1. Pregnant women should be aware of the risk associated with combined exposure to particulate matter and low temperatures during TR1 to prevent preterm birth. View Full-Text
Keywords: preterm birth; low birth weight; PM2.5; temperature preterm birth; low birth weight; PM2.5; temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kwag, Y.; Kim, M.-h.; Ye, S.; Oh, J.; Yim, G.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, E.; Lee, S.; Koh, T.K.; Ha, E. The Combined Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Preterm Birth in Seoul, 2010–2016. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1463. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041463

AMA Style

Kwag Y, Kim M-h, Ye S, Oh J, Yim G, Kim YJ, Kim E, Lee S, Koh TK, Ha E. The Combined Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Preterm Birth in Seoul, 2010–2016. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1463. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041463

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kwag, Youngrin; Kim, Min-ho; Ye, Shinhee; Oh, Jongmin; Yim, Gyeyoon; Kim, Young J.; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Semi; Koh, Tai K.; Ha, Eunhee. 2021. "The Combined Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Preterm Birth in Seoul, 2010–2016" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 4: 1463. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041463

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