Next Article in Journal
Effects of Caffeine and Caffeinated Beverages in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: Short Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Movement Entropy during Community Dance Programs for People with Parkinson’s Disease and Older Adults: A Cohort Study
Previous Article in Journal
Will Smog Cause Mental Health Problems? Indication from a Microsurvey of 35 Major Cities in China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exercise Intolerance and Oxygen Desaturation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Triggers for Respiratory Rehabilitation?
Article

Gamified Dual-Task Training for Individuals with Parkinson Disease: An Exploratory Study on Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy

1
USC Neurorestoration Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
3
Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
4
Pacific Brain Health Center, Pacific Neuroscience Institute, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA
5
Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
6
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
7
Department of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
8
Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
9
Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
10
Brain Health Leadership Foundation, Reno, NV 89509, USA
11
Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center, Downey, CA 90242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Charles Y. Liu and Beth E. Fisher have equal senior authorship on this work.
Academic Editor: Angela L. Ridgel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312384
Received: 7 October 2021 / Revised: 17 November 2021 / Accepted: 19 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
Objectives: The feasibility and safety of the use of neurorehabilitation technology (SMARTfit® Trainer system) by physical therapists in implementing a gamified physical-cognitive dual-task training (DTT) paradigm for individuals with Parkinson disease (IWPD) was examined. Additionally, the efficacy of this gamified DTT was compared to physical single-task training (STT), both of which were optimized using physio-motivational factors, on changes in motor and cognitive outcomes, and self-assessed disability in activities of daily living. Methods: Using a cross-over study design, eight participants with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD (including one with mild cognitive impairment) completed both training conditions (i.e., gamified DTT and STT). For each training condition, the participants attended 2–3 sessions per week over 8.8 weeks on average, with the total amount of training being equivalent to 24 1 h sessions. A washout period averaging 11.5 weeks was inserted between training conditions. STT consisted of task-oriented training involving the practice of functional tasks, whereas for gamified DTT, the same task-oriented training was implemented simultaneously with varied cognitive games using an interactive training system (SMARTfit®). Both training conditions were optimized through continual adaptation to ensure the use of challenging tasks and to provide autonomy support. Training hours, heart rate, and adverse events were measured to assess the feasibility and safety of the gamified DTT protocol. Motor and cognitive function as well as perceived disability were assessed before and after each training condition. Results: Gamified DTT was feasible and safe for this cohort. Across participants, significant improvements were achieved in more outcome measures after gamified DTT than they were after STT. Individually, participants with specific demographic and clinical characteristics responded differently to the two training conditions. Conclusion: Physical therapists’ utilization of technology with versatile hardware configurations and customizable software application selections was feasible and safe for implementing a tailor-made intervention and for adapting it in real-time to meet the individualized, evolving training needs of IWPD. Specifically in comparison to optimized STT, there was a preliminary signal of efficacy for gamified DTT in improving motor and cognitive function as well as perceived disability in IWPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; integrated dual-task training; motor-cognitive training; gamified rehabilitation; neurotechnology; physical therapy modalities; optimized intervention; exergaming; neurological rehabilitation; patient-focused intervention Parkinson’s disease; integrated dual-task training; motor-cognitive training; gamified rehabilitation; neurotechnology; physical therapy modalities; optimized intervention; exergaming; neurological rehabilitation; patient-focused intervention
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chua, L.-K.; Chung, Y.-C.; Bellard, D.; Swan, L.; Gobreial, N.; Romano, A.; Glatt, R.; Bonaguidi, M.A.; Lee, D.J.; Jin, Y.; Liu, C.Y.; Fisher, B.E. Gamified Dual-Task Training for Individuals with Parkinson Disease: An Exploratory Study on Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12384. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312384

AMA Style

Chua L-K, Chung Y-C, Bellard D, Swan L, Gobreial N, Romano A, Glatt R, Bonaguidi MA, Lee DJ, Jin Y, Liu CY, Fisher BE. Gamified Dual-Task Training for Individuals with Parkinson Disease: An Exploratory Study on Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(23):12384. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312384

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chua, Lee-Kuen, Yu-Chen Chung, David Bellard, Laura Swan, Nicole Gobreial, Amanda Romano, Ryan Glatt, Michael A. Bonaguidi, Darrin J. Lee, Yi Jin, Charles Y. Liu, and Beth E. Fisher. 2021. "Gamified Dual-Task Training for Individuals with Parkinson Disease: An Exploratory Study on Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 23: 12384. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312384

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop