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Barriers and Facilitators to Nut Consumption: A Narrative Review
Review

The Effect of Nut Consumption on Diet Quality, Cardiometabolic and Gastrointestinal Health in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

1
UniSA Allied Health and Human Performance, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, Australia
2
Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), University of South Adelaide, Adelaide 5000, Australia
3
UniSA Clinical & Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020454
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 8 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuts and Human Health)
Tree nuts and ground nuts are nutrient-rich foods known to improve human health when consumed regularly in the diet. Past observational studies suggest that nuts improve adult and child health; however, limited randomized control trials (RCTs) have assessed the health effects of nuts in children. Using a systematic review approach, we examined the effect of nut intake on health outcomes in children aged 8–18 years. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE and Cochrane library to identify RCTs of interest. A total of 5783 articles were identified, 4821 were screened by title and abstract and 37 by full text resulting in four articles that met the inclusion criteria for the review. Nut consumption was between 15 and 30 g with durations of between 3 and 16 weeks. Nut consumption was shown to improve children’s diet quality (increase children’s intake of essential nutrients including fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats), protein and fiber), there were inconsistent effects on biomarkers of cardiometabolic health (improve lipid profiles, microvascular reactivity and inflammation) and gastrointestinal health (increase in the proportion of beneficial fecal bacteria). Further studies exploring the broad health benefits of nuts in children are needed with consideration given to higher doses and longer intervention periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree nuts; child; diet quality; cardiometabolic health; gastrointestinal health tree nuts; child; diet quality; cardiometabolic health; gastrointestinal health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mead, L.C.; Hill, A.M.; Carter, S.; Coates, A.M. The Effect of Nut Consumption on Diet Quality, Cardiometabolic and Gastrointestinal Health in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 454. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020454

AMA Style

Mead LC, Hill AM, Carter S, Coates AM. The Effect of Nut Consumption on Diet Quality, Cardiometabolic and Gastrointestinal Health in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):454. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mead, Lauren C., Alison M. Hill, Sharayah Carter, and Alison M. Coates 2021. "The Effect of Nut Consumption on Diet Quality, Cardiometabolic and Gastrointestinal Health in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 2: 454. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020454

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