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Article

Lifestyle Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and in the General Adult Population—Trends over Five Years: Results of the Austrian National Health Interview Series

1
Social Insurance Fund for Public Service, Railway and Mining Industries, 1080 Vienna, Austria
2
Karl-Landsteiner Institute for Health Promotion Research, 3454 Sitzenberg-Reidling, Austria
3
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9910; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189910
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 14 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 21 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behaviour and Lifestyle)
Background: Not smoking, performing >150 min of aerobic physical activity (PA) and muscle strengthening exercises/week, and consuming >5 portions of fruit and vegetables/day are lifestyle recommendations for both the general population and people with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: A total of 15,771 and 15,461 persons from the Austrian Health Interview Surveys 2014 and 2019, respectively, including 4.9% and 6.0% of people with DM, were analysed in terms of their smoking, PA, and nutritional behaviours. Logistic regression models were performed for the lifestyle factors, adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related factors. Adjusted interactions between the survey year and DM on the lifestyle factors were computed. Results: The proportions of smokers were 23.9% and 20.2%, of people complying with the PA recommendations were 24.9% and 21.4%, and with fruit and vegetables recommendations were 7.1% and 5.5%, respectively, with significantly lower proportions of smokers and persons complying with the PA recommendations among people with DM. The fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for people with DM were 1.09 (0.94–1.26), 1.44 (1.23–1.69), and 0.90 (0.71–1.13) for smoking, not complying with PA recommendations, and not complying with fruit and vegetables recommendations, respectively. The proportion of people complying with PA recommendations decreased to a greater extent (p < 0.001) in people with DM (16.5% to 8.3%) compared to people without DM (25.3% to 22.3%). Conclusion: Diabetogenic lifestyle behaviours increased in the general Austrian population in recent years, which was especially true for people with DM regarding PA. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetogenic; health behaviour; exercise; nutrition; smoking diabetogenic; health behaviour; exercise; nutrition; smoking
MDPI and ACS Style

Dorner, T.E.; Lackinger, C.; Haider, S.; Stein, K.V. Lifestyle Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and in the General Adult Population—Trends over Five Years: Results of the Austrian National Health Interview Series. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9910. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189910

AMA Style

Dorner TE, Lackinger C, Haider S, Stein KV. Lifestyle Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and in the General Adult Population—Trends over Five Years: Results of the Austrian National Health Interview Series. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9910. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189910

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dorner, Thomas E., Christian Lackinger, Sandra Haider, and Katharina V. Stein. 2021. "Lifestyle Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and in the General Adult Population—Trends over Five Years: Results of the Austrian National Health Interview Series" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9910. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189910

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