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Article

Does Exposure of Lead and Cadmium Affect the Endometriosis?

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan-si 31116, Korea
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Soonchunhyang Cheonan Hospital, College of Medicine, Soon-chunhyang University, Cheonan-si 31151, Korea
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 26426, Korea
4
Institute of Genomic Cohort, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 26426, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Quynh C. Nguyen and Marty Kanarek
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179077
Received: 11 July 2021 / Revised: 21 August 2021 / Accepted: 25 August 2021 / Published: 28 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data for Public Health Research and Practice)
This study aimed to investigate the effects of blood lead levels (BLLs) and lead and cadmium exposure on endometriosis (EM). The study cohort consisted of female workers who underwent a lead-associated special medical examination between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004 (n = 26,542). The standard admission rate (SAR) and admission odds ratio (OR) for EM were calculated using the general population and noise-exposed groups, respectively, for the same period as the reference standards. The SAR for EM was 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.48) in lead-exposed workers and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.11–1.85) in workers with BLLs < 5 μg/dL when compared with that of the general population. Admission ORs of EM in lead-exposed workers and those with BLLs < 5 μg/dL were statistically higher than those of noise-exposed workers (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.15–1.70 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.11–1.98, respectively). The relative excess risk due to interaction of lead and cadmium was 0.33. Lead exposure was associated with EM admission. EM admission in lead-exposed workers with BLLs < 5 μg/dL was statistically higher than that of the general population and noise-exposed workers. Co-exposure to lead and cadmium has a synergistic effect with EM. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; cadmium; endometriosis; synergic effect lead; cadmium; endometriosis; synergic effect
MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, M.-G.; Min, Y.-S.; Ahn, Y.-S. Does Exposure of Lead and Cadmium Affect the Endometriosis? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179077

AMA Style

Kim M-G, Min Y-S, Ahn Y-S. Does Exposure of Lead and Cadmium Affect the Endometriosis? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):9077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179077

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Min-Gi, Young-Sun Min, and Yeon-Soon Ahn. 2021. "Does Exposure of Lead and Cadmium Affect the Endometriosis?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 9077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179077

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