Next Article in Journal
Cesium in Biology, Pancreatic Cancer, and Controversy in High and Low Radiation Exposure Damage—Scientific, Environmental, Geopolitical, and Economic Aspects
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Patient Safety Incidents in Primary Care Reported in an Electronic Registry Application
Article

Working Conditions and Urinalysis Dipstick Testing among Female Rice Farmers: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2
Department of Industrial Arts, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Lampang Rajabhat University, Lampang 52100, Thailand
3
Department of Agricultural Extension, Muang, Nan 55000, Thailand
4
Srinachuen Health Promoting Hospital, Wiangsa, Nan 55110, Thailand
5
Department of Occupational Safety and Health Management, School of Health Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Kitakyushu 8078555, Japan
6
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu 8078555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Benoit Nemery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 8942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18178942
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 21 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess working conditions and renal function among female rice farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. Purposive random sampling was used to select participants who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected from 65 female rice farmers using in-depth interviews. A walk-through survey was performed to examine hazards in the rice farm and a dipstick test was used for urinalysis. The results demonstrated that all rice farming stages contained risks from physical, chemical, biological and ergonomic hazards and that no measures had been implemented to protect participants’ health from these risks. The screening test results showed low urinary pH (5–6) in 54 women (83.0%), but high urinary specific gravity (1.030) in 25 women (38.5%). Participants’ urine contained leukocytes in 15 women (23.1%), protein in 14 women (21.5%) and blood in 13 women (20%). This study results suggest that farming activities affect female rice farmers’ health and safety. Urinalysis dipstick tests, which can be administered at the local public health promoting hospital, should be used to assess the occupational health status. The results will be useful for health surveillance and follow-up of the participants. These preliminary findings need to be confirmed in a larger study including non-farmers. View Full-Text
Keywords: female workers; renal function; rice farmers; urinalysis; working conditions female workers; renal function; rice farmers; urinalysis; working conditions
MDPI and ACS Style

Arphorn, S.; Manothum, A.; Santiwung, K.; Pangunta, K.; Hara, K.; Ishimaru, T. Working Conditions and Urinalysis Dipstick Testing among Female Rice Farmers: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8942. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18178942

AMA Style

Arphorn S, Manothum A, Santiwung K, Pangunta K, Hara K, Ishimaru T. Working Conditions and Urinalysis Dipstick Testing among Female Rice Farmers: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):8942. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18178942

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arphorn, Sara, Aniruth Manothum, Kotchakorn Santiwung, Kanograt Pangunta, Kunio Hara, and Tomohiro Ishimaru. 2021. "Working Conditions and Urinalysis Dipstick Testing among Female Rice Farmers: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 8942. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18178942

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop