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Review

Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm: Morphology, Genetics, Pathogenesis and Treatment Strategies

Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK
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Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147602
Received: 23 June 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 14 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms-Implications for Healthcare and Environment)
Staphylococcus aureus is a nosocomial bacterium causing different infectious diseases, ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to more serious and life-threatening infections such as septicaemia. S. aureus forms a complex structure of extracellular polymeric biofilm that provides a fully secured and functional environment for the formation of microcolonies, their sustenance and recolonization of sessile cells after its dispersal. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm protects the cells against hostile conditions, i.e., changes in temperature, limitations or deprivation of nutrients and dehydration, and, more importantly, protects the cells against antibacterial drugs. Drugs are increasingly becoming partially or fully inactive against S. aureus as they are either less penetrable or totally impenetrable due to the presence of biofilms surrounding the bacterial cells. Other factors, such as evasion of innate host immune system, genome plasticity and adaptability through gene evolution and exchange of genetic material, also contribute to the ineffectiveness of antibacterial drugs. This increasing tolerance to antibiotics has contributed to the emergence and rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a serious problem that has resulted in increased morbidity and mortality of human and animal populations globally, in addition to causing huge financial losses to the global economy. The purpose of this review is to highlight different aspects of S. aureus biofilm formation and its overall architecture, individual biofilm constituents, clinical implications and role in pathogenesis and drug resistance. The review also discusses different techniques used in the qualitative and quantitative investigation of S. aureus biofilm and various strategies that can be employed to inhibit and eradicate S. aureus biofilm. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; biofilm formation; gene expression; quorum sensing; antimicrobial resistance; pathogenesis; antibiofilm agents Staphylococcus aureus; biofilm formation; gene expression; quorum sensing; antimicrobial resistance; pathogenesis; antibiofilm agents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Idrees, M.; Sawant, S.; Karodia, N.; Rahman, A. Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm: Morphology, Genetics, Pathogenesis and Treatment Strategies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7602. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147602

AMA Style

Idrees M, Sawant S, Karodia N, Rahman A. Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm: Morphology, Genetics, Pathogenesis and Treatment Strategies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(14):7602. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147602

Chicago/Turabian Style

Idrees, Muhammad, Sheeba Sawant, Nazira Karodia, and Ayesha Rahman. 2021. "Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm: Morphology, Genetics, Pathogenesis and Treatment Strategies" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 14: 7602. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147602

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