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Article

Investigating and Managing the Impact of Using Untreated Wastewater for Irrigation on the Groundwater Quality in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

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Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Center for Research and Innovation in Construction, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, 04200 Košice, Slovakia
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Belbis High Institute for Engineering, Belbes, El Sharqia 44519, Egypt
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Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, 04200 Košice, Slovakia
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Department of Building Facilities, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, 04200 Košice, Slovakia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dino Musmarra
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147485
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 3 July 2021 / Accepted: 6 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
This study aims to investigate the impact of using untreated wastewater in irrigation. Different scenarios of management were applied by mixing it with treated wastewater or freshwater on groundwater quality. A hypothetical case study is presented. The numerical model of MODFLOW is used in the simulation by applying four stages (21 scenarios) including: different values of pumping rates, changing wastewater recharge rates, and a combination of the previous scenarios. Additionally, protection scenario for groundwater was applied by using different values of mixing of freshwater with wastewater. The simulation was carried out for the contamination of Chemical Oxygen Demand COD and the concentration reached 48.6 ppm at a depth of 25 m and 19.41 ppm at a depth of 50 m in the base case. The results showed a negative impact on groundwater quality had occurred due to increasing the pumping rates, wastewater recharge rates, and combination between two scenarios, which led to an increase of the contaminants in the aquifers. However, positive protection effects occurred due to mixing the wastewater with treated wastewater. The results of COD concentration in groundwater using treated wastewater reached 81.82, 77.88, 74.03, 70.12, and 66.15 ppm at a depth of 25 m and 53.53, 50.95, 48.43, 45.87, and 43.28 ppm at a depth of 50 m, at concentrations of 93, 88.52, 84.14, 79.7, and 75.19 ppm with constant pumping and recharge rates of 4320 m3/d and 547.5 mm/year, respectively. The using of treated wastewater could improve the groundwater quality to be used in the irrigation process and help to minimize groundwater contamination. Moreover, the abstraction of the groundwater should be optimized, and the qualities of wastewater should be constrained in agriculture to protect the groundwater quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater; treatment; irrigation; groundwater quality; COD wastewater; treatment; irrigation; groundwater quality; COD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abd-Elhamid, H.F.; Abd-Elmoneem, S.M.; Abdelaal, G.M.; Zeleňáková, M.; Vranayova, Z.; Abd-Elaty, I. Investigating and Managing the Impact of Using Untreated Wastewater for Irrigation on the Groundwater Quality in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147485

AMA Style

Abd-Elhamid HF, Abd-Elmoneem SM, Abdelaal GM, Zeleňáková M, Vranayova Z, Abd-Elaty I. Investigating and Managing the Impact of Using Untreated Wastewater for Irrigation on the Groundwater Quality in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(14):7485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147485

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abd-Elhamid, Hany F., Shaimaa M. Abd-Elmoneem, Gamal M. Abdelaal, Martina Zeleňáková, Zuzana Vranayova, and Ismail Abd-Elaty. 2021. "Investigating and Managing the Impact of Using Untreated Wastewater for Irrigation on the Groundwater Quality in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 14: 7485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147485

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