Next Article in Journal
Usage of eHealth/mHealth Services among Young Czech Adults and the Impact of COVID-19: An Explorative Survey
Next Article in Special Issue
The Influence of Media Exposure on Anxiety and Working Memory during Lockdown Period in Italy
Previous Article in Journal
Mercury and Prenatal Growth: A Systematic Review
Article

Loneliness and Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Moderating Roles of Personal, Social and Organizational Resources on Perceived Stress and Exhaustion among Finnish University Employees

Work Research Centre, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, 33014 Tampere, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank Eves
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137146
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 22 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 3 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Workplace Stress and Anxiety During COVID-19)
The aim of this study is to investigate whether personal, social and organizational level resources can buffer against the negative effects of perceived loneliness on stress and exhaustion. The data was collected from Finnish university employees (n = 1463) in autumn 2020 via an electronic survey. Of the respondents, about 78% were working remotely, and 64% were female. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the main and moderating (i.e., buffering) effects. The results indicated that perceived loneliness was directly and positively associated with stress and exhaustion. Further, as hypothesized, personal resilience moderated the relationship between loneliness and stress and exhaustion, and organizational support moderated the relationship between loneliness and stress. Unexpectedly, organizational support did not moderate the loneliness–exhaustion relationship. Moreover, a sense of social belonging was not associated with stress and exhaustion, nor did it moderate loneliness and well-being relationships. The results demonstrate the importance of personal resilience and organizational support in enhancing well-being in organizations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research directions and practical ways to promote resilience and to increase organizational support are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: loneliness; COVID-19; personal demands; stress; exhaustion; personal resilience; social belonging; organizational support loneliness; COVID-19; personal demands; stress; exhaustion; personal resilience; social belonging; organizational support
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mäkiniemi, J.-P.; Oksanen, A.; Mäkikangas, A. Loneliness and Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Moderating Roles of Personal, Social and Organizational Resources on Perceived Stress and Exhaustion among Finnish University Employees. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7146. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137146

AMA Style

Mäkiniemi J-P, Oksanen A, Mäkikangas A. Loneliness and Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Moderating Roles of Personal, Social and Organizational Resources on Perceived Stress and Exhaustion among Finnish University Employees. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13):7146. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137146

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia, Atte Oksanen, and Anne Mäkikangas. 2021. "Loneliness and Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Moderating Roles of Personal, Social and Organizational Resources on Perceived Stress and Exhaustion among Finnish University Employees" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 13: 7146. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137146

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop