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Changes in Health Behaviors, Mental and Physical Health among Older Adults under Severe Lockdown Restrictions during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain

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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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IdiPaz (Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Universitario La Paz), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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CIBERESP (CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, 08830 Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
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CIBERSAM (CIBER of Mental Health), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Foundation for Biomedical Research, Getafe University Hospital, 28905 Getafe, Spain
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CIBERFES (CIBER of Frailty and Healthy Aging), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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GENUD Toledo Research Group, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45004 Toledo, Spain
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Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Psychiatry, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-Princesa), Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain
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GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón IA2, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
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CIBEROBN (CIBER of Obesity and Nutrition), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Faculty of Health and Sport Science, University of Zaragoza, 22001 Huesca, Spain
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Department of Physiatry and Nursing, University of Zaragoza, 22002 Aragón, Spain
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Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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IMDEA-Food Institute, CEI UAM+CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Hospital Virgen del Valle, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, 45071 Toledo, Spain
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AFYCAV (Physical Activity, Quality of Life and Health) Research Group, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
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Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad de Oviedo/ISPA, 33003 Oviedo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137067
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 29 June 2021 / Accepted: 30 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
We used data from 3041 participants in four cohorts of community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65 years in Spain collected through a pre-pandemic face-to-face interview and a telephone interview conducted between weeks 7 to 15 after the beginning of the COVID-19 lockdown. On average, the confinement was not associated with a deterioration in lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol intake, diet, or weight), except for a decreased physical activity and increased sedentary time, which reversed with the end of confinement. However, chronic pain worsened, and moderate declines in mental health, that did not seem to reverse after restrictions were lifted, were observed. Males, older adults with greater social isolation or greater feelings of loneliness, those with poorer housing conditions, as well as those with a higher prevalence of chronic morbidities were at increased risk of developing unhealthier lifestyles or mental health declines with confinement. On the other hand, previously having a greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet and doing more physical activity protected older adults from developing unhealthier lifestyles with confinement. If another lockdown were imposed during this or future pandemics, public health programs should specially address the needs of older individuals with male sex, greater social isolation, sub-optimal housing conditions, and chronic morbidities because of their greater vulnerability to the enacted movement restrictions. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; confinement; elderly; lifestyle behaviors; mental health; chronic pain COVID-19; lockdown; confinement; elderly; lifestyle behaviors; mental health; chronic pain
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Esquinas, E.; Ortolá, R.; Gine-Vázquez, I.; Carnicero, J.A.; Mañas, A.; Lara, E.; Alvarez-Bustos, A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, G.; Sotos-Prieto, M.; Olaya, B.; Garcia-Garcia, F.J.; Gusi, N.; Banegas, J.R.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I.; Struijk, E.A.; Martínez-Gómez, D.; Lana, A.; Haro, J.M.; Ayuso-Mateos, J.L.; Rodríguez-Mañas, L.; Ara, I.; Miret, M.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. Changes in Health Behaviors, Mental and Physical Health among Older Adults under Severe Lockdown Restrictions during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7067. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137067

AMA Style

García-Esquinas E, Ortolá R, Gine-Vázquez I, Carnicero JA, Mañas A, Lara E, Alvarez-Bustos A, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Sotos-Prieto M, Olaya B, Garcia-Garcia FJ, Gusi N, Banegas JR, Rodríguez-Gómez I, Struijk EA, Martínez-Gómez D, Lana A, Haro JM, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Rodríguez-Mañas L, Ara I, Miret M, Rodríguez-Artalejo F. Changes in Health Behaviors, Mental and Physical Health among Older Adults under Severe Lockdown Restrictions during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13):7067. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137067

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Esquinas, Esther, Rosario Ortolá, Iago Gine-Vázquez, José A. Carnicero, Asier Mañas, Elvira Lara, Alejandro Alvarez-Bustos, German Vicente-Rodriguez, Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, Beatriz Olaya, Francisco J. Garcia-Garcia, Narcis Gusi, Jose R. Banegas, Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Ellen A. Struijk, David Martínez-Gómez, Alberto Lana, Josep M. Haro, José L. Ayuso-Mateos, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Ignacio Ara, Marta Miret, and Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo. 2021. "Changes in Health Behaviors, Mental and Physical Health among Older Adults under Severe Lockdown Restrictions during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 13: 7067. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137067

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