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Article

Urinary Fluoride Levels among Canadians with and without Community Water Fluoridation

1
Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB N3E 3N4, Canada
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
3
Institute for Social Research, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
4
Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126203
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 6 June 2021 / Published: 8 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
Drinking water is a major source of dietary fluoride intake in communities with water fluoridation. We examined the association between urinary fluoride adjusted for specific gravity (UFSG) and tap water fluoride levels, by age and sex, among individuals living in Canada. Participants included 1629 individuals aged 3 to 79 years from Cycle 3 (2012–2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. We used multiple linear regression to estimate unique associations of tap water fluoride levels, age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), use of fluoride-containing dental products, smoking in the home, and tea consumption with UFSG. UFSG concentration was significantly higher among participants who received fluoridated drinking water (mean = 1.06 mg/L, standard deviation = 0.83) than among those who did not (M = 0.58 mg/L, SD = 0.47), p < 0.01. UFSG increased over adulthood (ages 19 to 79). Higher UFSG concentration was associated with being female, tea drinking, and smoking in the home. In conclusion, community water fluoridation is a major source of contemporary fluoride exposure for Canadians. Lifestyle factors including tea consumption, as well as demographic variables such as age and sex, also predict urinary fluoride level, and are therefore important factors when interpreting population-based fluoride biomonitoring data. View Full-Text
Keywords: urinary fluoride; fluoride excretion; community water fluoridation; Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) urinary fluoride; fluoride excretion; community water fluoridation; Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Riddell, J.K.; Malin, A.J.; McCague, H.; Flora, D.B.; Till, C. Urinary Fluoride Levels among Canadians with and without Community Water Fluoridation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6203. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126203

AMA Style

Riddell JK, Malin AJ, McCague H, Flora DB, Till C. Urinary Fluoride Levels among Canadians with and without Community Water Fluoridation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6203. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126203

Chicago/Turabian Style

Riddell, Julia K., Ashley J. Malin, Hugh McCague, David B. Flora, and Christine Till. 2021. "Urinary Fluoride Levels among Canadians with and without Community Water Fluoridation" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6203. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126203

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