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Article

Assessment of PM2.5 Exposure during Cycle Trips in The Netherlands Using Low-Cost Sensors

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National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
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Province of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80300, 3508 TH Utrecht, The Netherlands
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SODAQ, Bussumerstraat 34, 1211 BL Hilversum, The Netherlands
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Civity B.V., Handelsweg 6, 3707 NH Zeist, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116007
Received: 7 May 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 29 May 2021 / Published: 3 June 2021
Air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5), is a major environmental risk factor for human health in Europe. Monitoring of air quality takes place using expensive reference stations. Low-cost sensors are a promising addition to this official monitoring network as they add spatial and temporal resolution at low cost. Moreover, low-cost sensors might allow for better characterization of personal exposure to PM2.5. In this study, we use 500 dust (PM2.5) sensors mounted on bicycles to estimate typical PM2.5 levels to which cyclists are exposed in the province of Utrecht, the Netherlands, in the year 2020. We use co-located sensors at reference stations to calibrate and validate the mobile sensor data. We estimate that the average exposure to traffic related PM2.5, on top of background concentrations, is approximately 2 μg/m3. Our results suggest that cyclists close to major roads have a small, but consistently higher exposure to PM2.5 compared to routes with less traffic. The results allow for a detailed spatial representation of PM2.5 concentrations and show that choosing a different cycle route might lead to a lower exposure to PM2.5. Finally, we conclude that the use of mobile, low-cost sensors is a promising method to estimate exposure to air pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-cost sensors; air quality; mobile sensors; PM2.5 exposure low-cost sensors; air quality; mobile sensors; PM2.5 exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wesseling, J.; Hendricx, W.; de Ruiter, H.; van Ratingen, S.; Drukker, D.; Huitema, M.; Schouwenaar, C.; Janssen, G.; van Aken, S.; Smeenk, J.W.; Hof, A.; Tielemans, E. Assessment of PM2.5 Exposure during Cycle Trips in The Netherlands Using Low-Cost Sensors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6007. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116007

AMA Style

Wesseling J, Hendricx W, de Ruiter H, van Ratingen S, Drukker D, Huitema M, Schouwenaar C, Janssen G, van Aken S, Smeenk JW, Hof A, Tielemans E. Assessment of PM2.5 Exposure during Cycle Trips in The Netherlands Using Low-Cost Sensors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):6007. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wesseling, Joost, Wouter Hendricx, Henri de Ruiter, Sjoerd van Ratingen, Derko Drukker, Maaike Huitema, Claar Schouwenaar, Geert Janssen, Stephen van Aken, Jan W. Smeenk, Arjen Hof, and Erik Tielemans. 2021. "Assessment of PM2.5 Exposure during Cycle Trips in The Netherlands Using Low-Cost Sensors" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 6007. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116007

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