Next Article in Journal
Age-Graded Transitions and Turning Points in Polish Offenders’ Criminal Careers from the Standpoint of Life Course Theory
Next Article in Special Issue
Immigration and Gender as Social Determinants of Mental Health during the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Case of US Latina/os
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of PM2.5 Exposure during Cycle Trips in The Netherlands Using Low-Cost Sensors
Previous Article in Special Issue
Time Trends in Racial/Ethnic Differences in COVID-19 Infection and Mortality
Article

Impact of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic on HIV/AIDS Programming in Kenya: Evidence from Kibera Informal Settlement and COVID-19 Hotspot Counties

1
Monitoring Evaluation and Research Unit, Amref Health Africa in Kenya, 30125-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
2
Department of Strategic Health Programs, Division of National AIDS and STIs Control Programme, 19361-00202 Nairobi, Kenya
3
Health Directorate, Nairobi Metropolitan Services, 49130 Nairobi, Kenya
4
Clinical and Diagnostics Programme, Amref Health Africa Headquarters, 27691-00506 Nairobi, Kenya
5
Office of the Vice Chancellor, Amref International University, 27691-00506 Nairobi, Kenya
6
Division of Epidemiology and Prevention: Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Keith C. Norris, Arleen F. Brown and Roland J. Thorpe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116009
Received: 25 March 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 3 June 2021
The study sought to determine the impact of COVID-19 on HIV/AIDS programming in the Kibera informal settlement and COVID-19 hotspot counties during the first wave of the pandemic. The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase entailed the analysis of HIV care and treatment secondary data (2018–2020) from the Kenya Health Information System. In the second phase, a prospective cohort study was conducted among people living with HIV in the Kibera informal settlement. A total of 176 participants aged 18 years and above accessing HIV services at selected healthcare facilities in Kibera were randomly sampled from facility electronic medical records and followed up for three months. Socio-demographics and contact details were abstracted from the records and telephone interviews were conducted with consenting participants. Results from the retrospective review of HIV program data indicated a 56% (p < 0.000, 95% CI: 31.3%–62.8%) reduction in uptake of HIV services. Clients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduced significantly by 48% (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 35.4%–77%) in hotspot counties. However, pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake increased significantly by 24% (p < 0.019, 95% CI: 4%–49%). In Kibera, 14% reported missing medications at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic because of lack of food (38%) and government measures (11%), which affected ART access; 11% did not access health facilities due to fear of contracting COVID-19, government regulations and lack of personal protective equipment. Socioeconomic factors, food insecurity and government measures affected uptake of HIV/AIDS services; hence, the need for scaling up measures to increase access to HIV/AIDS services during the onset of pandemics. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; HIV/AIDS; antiretroviral therapy; food security; pre-exposure prophylaxis; lockdown measures; personal protective equipment COVID-19; HIV/AIDS; antiretroviral therapy; food security; pre-exposure prophylaxis; lockdown measures; personal protective equipment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Muhula, S.; Opanga, Y.; Oramisi, V.; Ngugi, C.; Ngunu, C.; Carter, J.; Marita, E.; Osur, J.; Memiah, P. Impact of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic on HIV/AIDS Programming in Kenya: Evidence from Kibera Informal Settlement and COVID-19 Hotspot Counties. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6009. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116009

AMA Style

Muhula S, Opanga Y, Oramisi V, Ngugi C, Ngunu C, Carter J, Marita E, Osur J, Memiah P. Impact of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic on HIV/AIDS Programming in Kenya: Evidence from Kibera Informal Settlement and COVID-19 Hotspot Counties. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):6009. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muhula, Samuel, Yvonne Opanga, Violet Oramisi, Catherine Ngugi, Caroline Ngunu, Jane Carter, Enock Marita, Joachim Osur, and Peter Memiah. 2021. "Impact of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic on HIV/AIDS Programming in Kenya: Evidence from Kibera Informal Settlement and COVID-19 Hotspot Counties" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 6009. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116009

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop