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Article

Working during a Pandemic between the Risk of Being Infected and/or the Risks Related to Social Distancing: First Validation of the [email protected] Questionnaire

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Department of Psychology, University of Turin, 10124 Turin, Italy
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Department of Education Sciences, University of Genoa, 16128 Genova, Italy
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Department of Humanities, University of Naples Federico II, 80133 Naples, Italy
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FISPPA Section of Applied Psychology, University of Padua, 35131 Padua, Italy
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Department of Psychological, Health and Territory Sciences G. d’Annunzio, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin M. Kelly
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5986; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115986
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 26 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led the worldwide healthcare system to a severe crisis in which personnel paid the major costs. Many studies were promptly dedicated to the physical and psychological consequences of the COVID-19 exposure among healthcare employees, whereas the research on the other working populations has been substantially ignored. To bridge the current lack of knowledge about safe behaviors related to the risk of COVID-19 contagion at work, the aim of the study was to validate a new tool, the [email protected] (Safety at Work), to assess workers’ perceptions of safety. Methods: A total of 1085 participants, employed in several organizations sited across areas with different levels of risk of contagion, completed an online questionnaire. To test the [email protected] validity and measurement invariance, the research sample was randomly divided in two. Results: In the first sub-sample, Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated the adequacy of the [email protected] factorial structure. In the second sub-sample, multi-group Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed that the [email protected] was invariant across gender, ecological risk level, and type of occupation (in-person vs. remote working). Conclusions: The study evidenced the psychometric properties of the [email protected], a brief tool to monitor workers’ experiences and safety perceptions regarding the COVID-19 risk in any organisational setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: occupational health; COVID-19; perceived safety assessment occupational health; COVID-19; perceived safety assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Converso, D.; Bruno, A.; Capone, V.; Colombo, L.; Falco, A.; Galanti, T.; Girardi, D.; Guidetti, G.; Viotti, S.; Loera, B. Working during a Pandemic between the Risk of Being Infected and/or the Risks Related to Social Distancing: First Validation of the [email protected] Questionnaire. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5986. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115986

AMA Style

Converso D, Bruno A, Capone V, Colombo L, Falco A, Galanti T, Girardi D, Guidetti G, Viotti S, Loera B. Working during a Pandemic between the Risk of Being Infected and/or the Risks Related to Social Distancing: First Validation of the [email protected] Questionnaire. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5986. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115986

Chicago/Turabian Style

Converso, Daniela; Bruno, Andreina; Capone, Vincenza; Colombo, Lara; Falco, Alessandra; Galanti, Teresa; Girardi, Damiano; Guidetti, Gloria; Viotti, Sara; Loera, Barbara. 2021. "Working during a Pandemic between the Risk of Being Infected and/or the Risks Related to Social Distancing: First Validation of the [email protected] Questionnaire" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 11: 5986. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115986

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