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Review

Drone Noise Emission Characteristics and Noise Effects on Humans—A Systematic Review

1
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
2
BeSB GmbH Berlin Schalltechnisches Büro, 12203 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio J. Torija
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115940
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 26 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 1 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drone Noise: A New Public Health Challenge)
The number of operations of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), commonly referred to as “drones”, has strongly increased in the past and is likely to further grow in the future. Therefore, drones are becoming a growing new source of environmental noise pollution, and annoyance reactions to drone noise are likely to occur in an increasing share of the population. To date, research on drone noise emission characteristics, and in particular also on health impacts, seems scarce, but systematic overviews on these topics are missing. The objective of this study was to establish a systematic literature review on drone noise emissions and noise effects on humans. The paper presents the methodology of the systematic reviews performed separately for noise emission and noise effects, assembles current literature, gives an overview on the state of knowledge, and identifies research gaps. Current literature suggests that drone noise is substantially more annoying than road traffic or aircraft noise due to special acoustic characteristics such as pure tones and high-frequency broadband noise. A range of open questions remains to be tackled by future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: drones; UAV; UAS; multicopter; noise emission; noise effects; annoyance; perception drones; UAV; UAS; multicopter; noise emission; noise effects; annoyance; perception
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schäffer, B.; Pieren, R.; Heutschi, K.; Wunderli, J.M.; Becker, S. Drone Noise Emission Characteristics and Noise Effects on Humans—A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115940

AMA Style

Schäffer B, Pieren R, Heutschi K, Wunderli JM, Becker S. Drone Noise Emission Characteristics and Noise Effects on Humans—A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schäffer, Beat, Reto Pieren, Kurt Heutschi, Jean M. Wunderli, and Stefan Becker. 2021. "Drone Noise Emission Characteristics and Noise Effects on Humans—A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5940. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115940

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