Next Article in Journal
Health and Economic Loss Assessment of PM2.5 Pollution during 2015–2017 in Gansu Province, China
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of the Stomatognathic System before and after Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment in 120 Healthy People by Using Surface Electromyography
 
 
Article

Prescription Opioid Distribution after the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana in Colorado

1
Department of Medical Education, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Scranton, PA 18509, USA
2
Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of New England, Portland, ME 04103, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093251
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 23 April 2020 / Accepted: 25 April 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
There have been dynamic changes in prescription opioid use in the US but the state level policy factors contributing to these are incompletely understood. We examined the association between the legalization of recreational marijuana and prescription opioid distribution in Colorado. Utah and Maryland, two states that had not legalized recreational marijuana, were selected for comparison. Prescription data reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration for nine opioids used for pain (e.g., fentanyl, morphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone) and two primarily for opioid use disorder (OUD, methadone and buprenorphine) from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated. Analysis of the interval pre (2007–2012) versus post (2013–2017) marijuana legalization revealed statistically significant decreases for Colorado (P < 0.05) and Maryland (P < 0.01), but not Utah, for pain medications. There was a larger reduction from 2012 to 2017 in Colorado (–31.5%) than the other states (–14.2% to –23.5%). Colorado had a significantly greater decrease in codeine and oxymorphone than the comparison states. The most prevalent opioids by morphine equivalents were oxycodone and methadone. Due to rapid and pronounced changes in prescription opioid distribution over the past decade, additional study with more states is needed to determine whether cannabis policy was associated with reductions in opioids used for chronic pain. View Full-Text
Keywords: cannabis; fentanyl; Maryland; morphine; oxycodone; opiate; public policy; Utah cannabis; fentanyl; Maryland; morphine; oxycodone; opiate; public policy; Utah
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kropp Lopez, A.K.; Nichols, S.D.; Chung, D.Y.; Kaufman, D.E.; McCall, K.L.; Piper, B.J. Prescription Opioid Distribution after the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana in Colorado. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3251. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093251

AMA Style

Kropp Lopez AK, Nichols SD, Chung DY, Kaufman DE, McCall KL, Piper BJ. Prescription Opioid Distribution after the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana in Colorado. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(9):3251. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093251

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kropp Lopez, Amalie K., Stephanie D. Nichols, Daniel Y. Chung, Daniel E. Kaufman, Kenneth L. McCall, and Brian J. Piper. 2020. "Prescription Opioid Distribution after the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana in Colorado" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 9: 3251. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093251

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop