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Open AccessReview

Lead Toxicity: Health Hazards, Influence on Food Chain, and Sustainable Remediation Approaches

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School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
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Central Muga Eri Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Jorhat, Assam 785000, India
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Geobiotec Research Centre, Department of Geosciences, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Water Management (Agriculture) Division, Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Kozhikode, Kerala 673571, India
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Central Sericultural Germplasm Resources Centre (CSGRC), Central Silk Board, Ministry of Textiles, Thally Road, Hosur, Tamil Nadu 635109, India
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ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute Regional Research Station Pali Marwar, Rajasthan 342003, India
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Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel
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Department of Environment science, J.C. Bose University of Science & Technology, YMCA, NH-2, Sector-6, Mathura Road, Faridabad, Haryana 121006, India
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Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India
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Institute of Environment and Development Studies, Bundelkhand University, Kanpur Road, Jhansi 284128, India
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072179 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 21 March 2020 / Accepted: 22 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Geology)
Lead (Pb) toxicity has been a subject of interest for environmental scientists due to its toxic effect on plants, animals, and humans. An increase in several Pb related industrial activities and use of Pb containing products such as agrochemicals, oil and paint, mining, etc. can lead to Pb contamination in the environment and thereby, can enter the food chain. Being one of the most toxic heavy metals, Pb ingestion via the food chain has proven to be a potential health hazard for plants and humans. The current review aims to summarize the research updates on Pb toxicity and its effects on plants, soil, and human health. Relevant literature from the past 20 years encompassing comprehensive details on Pb toxicity has been considered with key issues such as i) Pb bioavailability in soil, ii) Pb biomagnification, and iii) Pb- remediation, which has been addressed in detail through physical, chemical, and biological lenses. In the review, among different Pb-remediation approaches, we have highlighted certain advanced approaches such as microbial assisted phytoremediation which could possibly minimize the Pb load from the resources in a sustainable manner and would be a viable option to ensure a safe food production system. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead toxicity; lead contamination; health hazards; remediation lead toxicity; lead contamination; health hazards; remediation
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Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.; M.M.S., C.-P.; Chaturvedi, A.K.; Shabnam, A.A.; Subrahmanyam, G.; Mondal, R.; Gupta, D.K.; Malyan, S.K.; Kumar, S.S.; A. Khan, S.; Yadav, K.K. Lead Toxicity: Health Hazards, Influence on Food Chain, and Sustainable Remediation Approaches. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2179.

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