To measure the internal fit of the computer-aided designed/computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) crowns, a new scanner-based chairside approach was investigated in patients, and the results were compared to the established silicone replica technique and a digital laboratory replica method. Thirty full-coverage crown preparations were included. Based on a digital impression with an intraoral scanner (IOS, Trios 3), three CAD/CAM measurement copings (‘COM’, resin composite; ‘ZIR’, zirconium dioxide; ‘NPA’, non-precious alloy) were fabricated for each tooth preparation. The internal fit of the measurement copings was analyzed with three different evaluation methods: IOS-based digital approach (D-IOS), digital replica method with laboratory software (D-GOM), and conventional silicone replica technique (CV-SR). The congruence between the determined target parameter of the 80-µm cement space and the actual measured internal gap was investigated. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA (p-value < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between the three evaluation methods. However, significant differences were observed for the three coping materials (p-value < 0.05), the single measurement position (marginal, axial, and occlusal fit) (p-value < 0.05), and the interaction between the coping material and the measurement position (p-value < 0.05). COM revealed the smallest internal gap, followed by ZIR and NPA. Regardless of the coping material, the occlusal gap was higher than the axial and marginal gaps. Furthermore, only the internal gaps of the marginal area almost matched the target parameter of 80-µm for the cement space. D-IOS is effective for measuring internal fit of single crowns in different clinical settings.
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