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Effect of Free Healthcare Policy for Children under Five Years Old on the Incidence of Reported Malaria Cases in Burkina Faso by Bayesian Modelling: “Not only the Ears but also the Head of the Hippopotamus”
 
 
Article

Malaria Case Fatality Rate among Children under Five in Burkina Faso: An Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Trends Following the Implementation of Control Programs

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Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie, Biostatistiques et Recherche Clinique, Ecole de Santé Publique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
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Institut de Recherche Santé et Sociétés, Faculté de Santé Publique, Université catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
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Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie [INSD], 01 BP 374 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso
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Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme [CNRFP], 01 BP 2208 Ouagadougou 101, Burkina Faso
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Evaluation Platform on Obesity Prevention, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Quebec, QC G1V 4G5, Canada
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Centre for Research on Planning and Development (CRAD), Université Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
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Unité de Recherche Clinique de Nanoro, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique, 42 Avenue Kumda-Yonre, Ouagadougou, Kadiogo 11 BP 218 Ouagadougou CMS 11, Burkina Faso
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Centre de Recherche en Politiques et systèmes de santé-Santé internationale, École de Santé Publique Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061840
Received: 30 January 2020 / Revised: 4 March 2020 / Accepted: 9 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Epidemiology of Malaria)
Reducing the 2015 level of malaria mortality by 90% by 2030 is a goal set by the World Health Organization (WHO). In Burkina Faso, several malaria control programs proven to be effective were implemented over the last decade. In parallel, the progressive strengthening of the health surveillance system is generating valuable data, which represents a great opportunity for analyzing the trends in malaria burden and assessing the effect of these control programs. Complementary programs were rolled out at different time points and paces, and the present work aims at investigating both the spatial and temporal pattern of malaria case fatality rate (mCFR) by considering the effect of combining specific and unspecific malaria control programs. To this end, data on severe malaria cases and malaria deaths, aggregated at health district level between January 2013 and December 2018, were extracted from the national health data repository (ENDOS-BF). A Bayesian spatiotemporal zero-inflated Poisson model was fitted to quantify the strength of the association of malaria control programs with monthly mCFR trends at health district level. The model was adjusted for contextual variables. We found that monthly mCFR decreased from 2.0 (95% IC 1.9–2.1%) to 0.9 (95% IC 0.8–1.0%) deaths for 100 severe malaria cases in 2013 and 2018, respectively. Health districts with high mCFR were identified in the northern, northwestern and southwestern parts of the country. The availability of malaria rapid diagnosis tests (IRR: 0.54; CrI: 0.47, 0.62) and treatment (IRR: 0.50; CrI: 0.41, 0.61) were significantly associated with a reduction in the mCFR. The risk of dying from malaria was lower in the period after the free healthcare policy compared with the period before (IRR: 0.47; CrI: 0.38, 0.58). Our findings highlighted locations that are most in need of targeted interventions and the necessity to sustain and strengthen the launched health programs to further reduce the malaria deaths in Burkina Faso. View Full-Text
Keywords: health programs; malaria; fatality; Bayesian; spatiotemporal health programs; malaria; fatality; Bayesian; spatiotemporal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ouédraogo, M.; Kangoye, D.T.; Samadoulougou, S.; Rouamba, T.; Donnen, P.; Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, F. Malaria Case Fatality Rate among Children under Five in Burkina Faso: An Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Trends Following the Implementation of Control Programs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061840

AMA Style

Ouédraogo M, Kangoye DT, Samadoulougou S, Rouamba T, Donnen P, Kirakoya-Samadoulougou F. Malaria Case Fatality Rate among Children under Five in Burkina Faso: An Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Trends Following the Implementation of Control Programs. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):1840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061840

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ouédraogo, Mady, David Tiga Kangoye, Sékou Samadoulougou, Toussaint Rouamba, Philippe Donnen, and Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou. 2020. "Malaria Case Fatality Rate among Children under Five in Burkina Faso: An Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Trends Following the Implementation of Control Programs" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 6: 1840. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061840

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