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Smoking Prevalence and Secondhand Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Postpartum—Establishing Risks to Health and Human Rights before Developing a Tailored Programme for Smoking Cessation

1
School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
2
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Woodview House, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
3
Department of Preventive Medicine & Health Promotion, St Vincent’s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
4
National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street, Dublin 2, Ireland
5
UCD Perinatal Research Centre, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin 2, Ireland
6
University College Dublin, College of Health and Agricultural Sciences, Woodview House, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061838
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 5 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy and Postpartum)
Both smoking during pregnancy and secondhand smoke exposure are associated with reduced health outcomes. However, limited consistent evidence exists of risks of secondhand smoke exposure in pregnancy. Currently, inadequate smoking cessation services exist in Irish maternity hospitals. To identify the number of pregnant women smoking during pregnancy and to identify their exposure to secondhand smoke, we conducted a cross-sectional observational pilot study in one regional maternity hospital in Ireland in July/August 2018. Respondents were (1) women attending antenatal clinics and (2) postpartum women before discharge. Variables measured included smoking status of pregnant women and partner status, demographic variables, secondhand smoke exposure, and support for hospital smoke-free policy and development of smoking cessation services. The overall response rate was 42.2% in this study. The response rate was 56.5% (111/196) from postnatal wards and 37.3% (215/577) from antenatal clinics. Over 40% of respondents reported they had smoked during their lifetime. The majority of women (70%) reported quitting smoking before their pregnancy. Few women were active smokers. Almost 40% reported exposure to tobacco smoke in the previous week (38.5%); 16.9% reported living with a smoker, a critical factor in increased risk (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.89, 95% CI = 1.86–8.15, p < 0.001). Approximately 10% of postnatal mothers reported that their newborn would travel home with a smoker. Support for a no-smoking hospital policy was very high as was support for the development of cessation services. No documentation of secondhand smoke exposure for pregnant women or newborns is sought or recorded routinely in the hospital. A systems approach to develop smoking cessation programmes in maternity care should include screening and documenting of secondhand smoke exposure risks for women during pregnancy, and for their newborns at discharge, to improve health outcomes and protect human rights. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondhand smoke; smoking; pregnancy; public health; tobacco control; human rights secondhand smoke; smoking; pregnancy; public health; tobacco control; human rights
MDPI and ACS Style

Frazer, K.; Fitzpatrick, P.; Brosnan, M.; Dromey, A.M.; Kelly, S.; Murphy, M.; O’Brien, D.; Kelleher, C.C.; McAuliffe, F.M. Smoking Prevalence and Secondhand Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Postpartum—Establishing Risks to Health and Human Rights before Developing a Tailored Programme for Smoking Cessation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1838. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061838

AMA Style

Frazer K, Fitzpatrick P, Brosnan M, Dromey AM, Kelly S, Murphy M, O’Brien D, Kelleher CC, McAuliffe FM. Smoking Prevalence and Secondhand Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Postpartum—Establishing Risks to Health and Human Rights before Developing a Tailored Programme for Smoking Cessation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):1838. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061838

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frazer, Kate; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Brosnan, Mary; Dromey, Anne M.; Kelly, Sarah; Murphy, Michael; O’Brien, Denise; Kelleher, Cecily C.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M. 2020. "Smoking Prevalence and Secondhand Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Postpartum—Establishing Risks to Health and Human Rights before Developing a Tailored Programme for Smoking Cessation" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 6: 1838. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061838

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