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Parkinson’s Disease in Louisiana, 1999–2012: Based on Hospital Primary Discharge Diagnoses, Incidence, and Risk in Relation to Local Agricultural Crops, Pesticides, and Aquifer Recharge

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, College of the Coast & Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
2
Cartographic Section, Louisiana Geological Survey, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051584
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 26 February 2020 / Accepted: 27 February 2020 / Published: 29 February 2020
The two major causes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are genetic susceptibility and exposure to agricultural pesticides. Access to 23,224 individuals’ hospital primary discharge diagnoses of PD allowed the mapping of cases against known crop distributions and pesticides. Our main objective was to map PD risks (cases per 10,000 people) against crops and their pesticides. The ZIP Code address locations, and the 2000 and 2010 census data, were used to map the risks of PD throughout Louisiana and in relation to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-recorded crops. The introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops appears to have initiated the PD disappearance from northeastern parishes on the west bank of the Mississippi river. Rice and sugar cane are seemingly unassociated with PD, as is the Mississippi itself, except for Jefferson and St. Charles Parishes, which are essentially urban or industrial. The present major PD-affected areas are associated with commercial forests, woodlands, and pastures, and thus with certain arbor-pastoral pesticides, 2,4-D, chlorpyrifos, and paraquat. Human populations at maximum risk are those living in areas of moderate and high aquifer-recharge potential. The levels of estimated pesticide exposure in these recharge areas we were able to access were of variable use, but significant amounts of 2,4-D were being used. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural pesticides; 2,4-D; chlorpyrifos; paraquat; aquifer recharge; woodland; pastures; agricultural ecology agricultural pesticides; 2,4-D; chlorpyrifos; paraquat; aquifer recharge; woodland; pastures; agricultural ecology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hugh-Jones, M.E.; Peele, R.H.; Wilson, V.L. Parkinson’s Disease in Louisiana, 1999–2012: Based on Hospital Primary Discharge Diagnoses, Incidence, and Risk in Relation to Local Agricultural Crops, Pesticides, and Aquifer Recharge. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1584. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051584

AMA Style

Hugh-Jones ME, Peele RH, Wilson VL. Parkinson’s Disease in Louisiana, 1999–2012: Based on Hospital Primary Discharge Diagnoses, Incidence, and Risk in Relation to Local Agricultural Crops, Pesticides, and Aquifer Recharge. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(5):1584. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051584

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hugh-Jones, Martin E., R. H. Peele, and Vincent L. Wilson 2020. "Parkinson’s Disease in Louisiana, 1999–2012: Based on Hospital Primary Discharge Diagnoses, Incidence, and Risk in Relation to Local Agricultural Crops, Pesticides, and Aquifer Recharge" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 5: 1584. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051584

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