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Article

Association between Cardiovascular Mortality and Economic Development: A Spatio-Temporal Study for Prefectures in Japan

1
Asian Demographic Research Institute (ADRI), Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
2
Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
3
Department of Demography, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041311
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Inequality and Spatially Distribution)
In this paper, we use a bivariate choropleth map to investigate the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, by sex, in Japanese prefectures from 1996 to 2015. The overall results show a decline in age-standardized CVD mortality rates in all prefectures, for both men and women, and suggest that GDP per capita has varied over the period. We also observed that the relationship between CVD mortality rates and GDP per capita at the prefecture level does not have an overall pattern of the same or inverse association, but is instead a heterogeneous relationship. We argue that this study provides useful clues to policy makers for establishing effective measures for public health planning and the prevention of deaths from CVD. As demonstrated by this study, mapping of the CVD burden in Japan helps to clarify regional differences in life expectancy and health status across regions and identify prefectures where more targeted policy attention may be needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: mortality; cardiovascular mortality; gross domestic product (GDP); economic development; bivariate choropleth map; Japan; prefectures; Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 mortality; cardiovascular mortality; gross domestic product (GDP); economic development; bivariate choropleth map; Japan; prefectures; Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baptista, E.A.; Kakinuma, K.; Queiroz, B.L. Association between Cardiovascular Mortality and Economic Development: A Spatio-Temporal Study for Prefectures in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1311. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041311

AMA Style

Baptista EA, Kakinuma K, Queiroz BL. Association between Cardiovascular Mortality and Economic Development: A Spatio-Temporal Study for Prefectures in Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(4):1311. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041311

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baptista, Emerson A., Kaoru Kakinuma, and Bernardo L. Queiroz 2020. "Association between Cardiovascular Mortality and Economic Development: A Spatio-Temporal Study for Prefectures in Japan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 4: 1311. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041311

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