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Associations of Relative Humidity and Lifestyles with Metabolic Syndrome among the Ecuadorian Adult Population: Ecuador National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) 2012

1
Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Facultad de Enfermería, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito 170525, Ecuador
3
Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
4
Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239023
Received: 21 October 2020 / Revised: 21 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 December 2020 / Published: 3 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Adaption for Public Health)
The effects of the physical environment on metabolic syndrome (MetS) are still largely unexplained. This study aimed to analyze the associations of relative humidity of residence, lifestyles, and MetS among Ecuadorian adults. Data from 6024 people aged 20 to 60 years were obtained from an Ecuador national population-based health and nutrition survey (i.e., ENSANUT-ECU, 2012) and the mean annual relative humidity (%) from the Ecuador National Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (2012). Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for MetS according to groups of relative humidity were calculated using multiple logistic regression. Living in high relative humidity (>80%) increased ORs of reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1.25; 95 % CI, 1.06–1.56) and MetS (OR = 1.20; 95 % CI,1.01–1.42) in women. Furthermore, physically active men living in high relative humidity showed lower OR of elevated triglycerides (0.56; 95 % CI,0.37–0.85) while menopausal women living in high relative humidity showed increased ORs of MetS (5.42; 95 % CI, 1.92–15.27), elevated blood pressure (3.10; 95 % CI, 1.15–8.35), and increased waist circumference (OR = 1.34; 95 % CI, 1.09–1.63). Our results show that residence in high relative humidity and menopausal status increase ORs of MetS and its components in Ecuadorian women; however, physical activity significantly reduces the OR of elevated triglycerides in men. The obtained findings may help make public health policies regarding environmental humidity management, nutritional education, menopausal care, and physical activity promotion to prevent the onset of MetS among Ecuadorian adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: relative humidity; metabolic syndrome; physical activity; menopause; ENSANUT-ECU; 2012 relative humidity; metabolic syndrome; physical activity; menopause; ENSANUT-ECU; 2012
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MDPI and ACS Style

Juna, C.F.; Cho, Y.H.; Ham, D.; Joung, H. Associations of Relative Humidity and Lifestyles with Metabolic Syndrome among the Ecuadorian Adult Population: Ecuador National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9023. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239023

AMA Style

Juna CF, Cho YH, Ham D, Joung H. Associations of Relative Humidity and Lifestyles with Metabolic Syndrome among the Ecuadorian Adult Population: Ecuador National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) 2012. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):9023. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Juna, Christian F.; Cho, Yoon H.; Ham, Dongwoo; Joung, Hyojee. 2020. "Associations of Relative Humidity and Lifestyles with Metabolic Syndrome among the Ecuadorian Adult Population: Ecuador National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) 2012" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 9023. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239023

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