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Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index as a Screening Tool to Identify Patients with Malnutrition at a High Risk of In-Hospital Mortality among Elderly Patients with Femoral Fractures—A Retrospective Study in a Level I Trauma Center

1
Department of Trauma Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 803, Taiwan
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 803, Taiwan
3
Department of Plastic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 803, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238920
Received: 12 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
Background: Malnutrition is frequently underdiagnosed in geriatric patients and is considered to be a contributing factor for worse outcomes during hospitalization. In addition, elderly patients who undergo trauma are often malnourished at the time of incurring fractures. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), calculated based on the serum albumin level and the ratio of present body weight to ideal body weight, was proposed for the assessment of the nutritional status of elderly patients with various illnesses. This study aimed to investigate whether the GNRI has a prognostic value that links the nutritional status and mortality outcomes of elderly patients who have previously undergone trauma with femoral fractures. Methods: From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2019, a total of 678 elderly patients with femoral fractures were categorized into four nutritional risk groups: a major-risk group (GNRI < 82; group 1, n = 127), moderate-risk group (GNRI 82–92; group 2, n = 179), low-risk group (GNRI 92–98; group 3, n = 123), and no-risk group (GNRI > 98; group 4, n = 249). To minimize the confounding effects of sex, age, preexisting comorbidities, and injury severity of patients on outcome measurements, propensity score-matched patient cohorts were created to assess the impact of patients being in different nutritional risk groups on the in-hospital mortality outcomes against the no-risk group. Results: The patients in groups 1–3 were significantly older and presented a significantly lower body mass index and lower serum albumin levels than those in group 4. Compared with patients in group 4 (3.6%), a significantly higher mortality rate was found in the patients in group 1 (17.3%, p < 0.001), but not in those in group 2 (6.7%) or group 3 (2.4%). The study of propensity score-matched patient cohorts provided similar results; group 1 patients had significantly higher odds of mortality than group 4 patients (odds ratio, 6.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.34–29.37; p = 0.009), but there were no significant differences in mortality risks among patients in groups 2 and 3 compared with those in group 4. Conclusions: This preliminary study suggested that the GNRI may be used as a screening tool to identify patients with malnutrition at a high risk of mortality among elderly patients with femoral fractures. A prospective study is needed to validate the suggestion. View Full-Text
Keywords: elderly; femoral bone fracture; malnutrition; mortality; geriatric nutritional risk index; trauma elderly; femoral bone fracture; malnutrition; mortality; geriatric nutritional risk index; trauma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Su, W.-T.; Wu, S.-C.; Huang, C.-Y.; Chou, S.-E.; Tsai, C.-H.; Li, C.; Hsu, S.-Y.; Hsieh, C.-H. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index as a Screening Tool to Identify Patients with Malnutrition at a High Risk of In-Hospital Mortality among Elderly Patients with Femoral Fractures—A Retrospective Study in a Level I Trauma Center. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8920.

AMA Style

Su W-T, Wu S-C, Huang C-Y, Chou S-E, Tsai C-H, Li C, Hsu S-Y, Hsieh C-H. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index as a Screening Tool to Identify Patients with Malnutrition at a High Risk of In-Hospital Mortality among Elderly Patients with Femoral Fractures—A Retrospective Study in a Level I Trauma Center. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8920.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Su, Wei-Ti; Wu, Shao-Chun; Huang, Chun-Ying; Chou, Sheng-En; Tsai, Ching-Hua; Li, Chi; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Hua. 2020. "Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index as a Screening Tool to Identify Patients with Malnutrition at a High Risk of In-Hospital Mortality among Elderly Patients with Femoral Fractures—A Retrospective Study in a Level I Trauma Center" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 8920.

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