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Evaluation of Polish Wild Mushrooms as Beta-Glucan Sources
Review

A Review of the Occurrence of Alpha-Emitting Radionuclides in Wild Mushrooms

1
Toxicology and Radiation Protection Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Environmental and Computational Chemistry Group, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zaragocilla Campus, University of Cartagena, Cartagena 130015, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Jerzy Falandysz is visiting professor at affiliation 3.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218220
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 1 November 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment–Macromycetes (Fungi)–Edible Fungi)
Alpha-emitting radioisotopes are the most toxic among all radionuclides. In particular, medium to long-lived isotopes of the heavier metals are of the greatest concern to human health and radiological safety. This review focuses on the most common alpha-emitting radionuclides of natural and anthropogenic origin in wild mushrooms from around the world. Mushrooms bio-accumulate a range of mineral ionic constituents and radioactive elements to different extents, and are therefore considered as suitable bio-indicators of environmental pollution. The available literature indicates that the natural radionuclide 210Po is accumulated at the highest levels (up to 22 kBq/kg dry weight (dw) in wild mushrooms from Finland), while among synthetic nuclides, the highest levels of up to 53.8 Bq/kg dw of 239+240Pu were reported in Ukrainian mushrooms. The capacity to retain the activity of individual nuclides varies between mushrooms, which is of particular interest for edible species that are consumed either locally or, in some cases, also traded on an international scale. The effective radiation dose from the ingestion of this food can reportedly range from 0.033 µSv/kg dw to 26.8 mSv/kg and varies depending on the country. Following pollution events, such consumption may expose consumers to highly radiotoxic decay particles produced by alpha emitters. View Full-Text
Keywords: alpha-emitters; radioactivity; exposure; food; fungi; anthropogenic radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides alpha-emitters; radioactivity; exposure; food; fungi; anthropogenic radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides
MDPI and ACS Style

Strumińska-Parulska, D.; Falandysz, J. A Review of the Occurrence of Alpha-Emitting Radionuclides in Wild Mushrooms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8220. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218220

AMA Style

Strumińska-Parulska D, Falandysz J. A Review of the Occurrence of Alpha-Emitting Radionuclides in Wild Mushrooms. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21):8220. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218220

Chicago/Turabian Style

Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara, and Jerzy Falandysz. 2020. "A Review of the Occurrence of Alpha-Emitting Radionuclides in Wild Mushrooms" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 21: 8220. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218220

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