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Open AccessProtocol

Protocols for Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms for Sustainable Aquaculture and Coastal Fisheries in Chile

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Office of Industry-Academia-Government and Community Collaboration, Hiroshima University, 1-3-2 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima City, Hiroshima 739-8511, Japan
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Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshidanihonmatsu-cho, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
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Centro de Estudios de Algas Nocivas (CREAN), Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP), Padre Harter 547, Puerto Montt 5480000, Chile
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Scientific and Biotechnological Bioresource Nucleus (BIOREN-UFRO), Universidad de La Frontera, Ave. Francisco Salazar 01145, Temuco 4811230, Chile
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Centro de Bioinnovacion, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Recursos Biologicos, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile
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Laboratorio de Genética, Acuicultura & Biodiversidad, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Biodiversidad, Universidad de Los Lagos, Osorno 5290000, Chile
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Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, 2-20-1 Chuo, Kurashiki, Okayama 710-0046, Japan
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Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, Fisheries Resources Institute, Fisheries Stock Assessment Center, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-8648, Japan
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Laboratorio de toxinas y fitoplancton, IFOP, Enrique Abello 0552, Punta Arenas 6200000, Chile
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207642
Received: 6 September 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 18 October 2020 / Published: 20 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Harmful algae blooms (HABs) cause acute effects on marine ecosystems due to their production of endogenous toxins or their enormous biomass, leading to significant impacts on local economies and public health. Although HAB monitoring has been intensively performed at spatiotemporal scales in coastal areas of the world over the last decades, procedures have not yet been standardized. HAB monitoring procedures are complicated and consist of many methodologies, including physical, chemical, and biological water sample measurements. Each monitoring program currently uses different combinations of methodologies depending on site specific purposes, and many prior programs refer to the procedures in quotations. HAB monitoring programs in Chile have adopted the traditional microscopic and toxin analyses but not molecular biology and bacterial assemblage approaches. Here we select and optimize the HAB monitoring methodologies suitable for Chilean geography, emphasizing on metabarcoding analyses accompanied by the classical tools with considerations including cost, materials and instrument availability, and easiness and efficiency of performance. We present results from a pilot study using the standardized stepwise protocols, demonstrating feasibility and plausibility for sampling and analysis for the HAB monitoring. Such specific instructions in the standardized protocol are critical obtaining quality data under various research environments involving multiple stations, different analysts, various time-points, and long HAB monitoring duration. View Full-Text
Keywords: HAB monitoring; harmful algae; phytoplankton; coastal monitoring; metabarcoding analysis; DNA extraction; microscope; pigment assay; toxin assay; nutrient assay HAB monitoring; harmful algae; phytoplankton; coastal monitoring; metabarcoding analysis; DNA extraction; microscope; pigment assay; toxin assay; nutrient assay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yarimizu, K.; Fujiyoshi, S.; Kawai, M.; Norambuena-Subiabre, L.; Cascales, E.-K.; Rilling, J.-I.; Vilugrón, J.; Cameron, H.; Vergara, K.; Morón-López, J.; Acuña, J.J.; Gajardo, G.; Espinoza-González, O.; Guzmán, L.; Jorquera, M.A.; Nagai, S.; Pizarro, G.; Riquelme, C.; Ueki, S.; Maruyama, F. Protocols for Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms for Sustainable Aquaculture and Coastal Fisheries in Chile. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207642

AMA Style

Yarimizu K, Fujiyoshi S, Kawai M, Norambuena-Subiabre L, Cascales E-K, Rilling J-I, Vilugrón J, Cameron H, Vergara K, Morón-López J, Acuña JJ, Gajardo G, Espinoza-González O, Guzmán L, Jorquera MA, Nagai S, Pizarro G, Riquelme C, Ueki S, Maruyama F. Protocols for Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms for Sustainable Aquaculture and Coastal Fisheries in Chile. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207642

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yarimizu, Kyoko; Fujiyoshi, So; Kawai, Mikihiko; Norambuena-Subiabre, Luis; Cascales, Emma-Karin; Rilling, Joaquin-Ignacio; Vilugrón, Jonnathan; Cameron, Henry; Vergara, Karen; Morón-López, Jesus; Acuña, Jacquelinne J.; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Espinoza-González, Oscar; Guzmán, Leonardo; Jorquera, Milko A.; Nagai, Satoshi; Pizarro, Gemita; Riquelme, Carlos; Ueki, Shoko; Maruyama, Fumito. 2020. "Protocols for Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms for Sustainable Aquaculture and Coastal Fisheries in Chile" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 20: 7642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207642

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