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Review

The Gut Microbiota and Inflammation: An Overview

1
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne 3168, Australia
2
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207618
Received: 10 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 19 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Health and Disease)
The gut microbiota encompasses a diverse community of bacteria that carry out various functions influencing the overall health of the host. These comprise nutrient metabolism, immune system regulation and natural defence against infection. The presence of certain bacteria is associated with inflammatory molecules that may bring about inflammation in various body tissues. Inflammation underlies many chronic multisystem conditions including obesity, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammation may be triggered by structural components of the bacteria which can result in a cascade of inflammatory pathways involving interleukins and other cytokines. Similarly, by-products of metabolic processes in bacteria, including some short-chain fatty acids, can play a role in inhibiting inflammatory processes. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of the relationship between the gut microbiota and inflammatory molecules and to highlight relevant knowledge gaps in this field. Based on the current literature, it appears that as the gut microbiota composition differs between individuals and is contingent on a variety of factors like diet and genetics, some individuals may possess bacteria associated with pro-inflammatory effects whilst others may harbour those with anti-inflammatory effects. Recent technological advancements have allowed for better methods of characterising the gut microbiota. Further research to continually improve our understanding of the inflammatory pathways that interact with bacteria may elucidate reasons behind varying presentations of the same disease and varied responses to the same treatment in different individuals. Furthermore, it can inform clinical practice as anti-inflammatory microbes can be employed in probiotic therapies or used to identify suitable prebiotic therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; microbiome; inflammation; cytokines gut microbiota; microbiome; inflammation; cytokines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al Bander, Z.; Nitert, M.D.; Mousa, A.; Naderpoor, N. The Gut Microbiota and Inflammation: An Overview. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7618. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207618

AMA Style

Al Bander Z, Nitert MD, Mousa A, Naderpoor N. The Gut Microbiota and Inflammation: An Overview. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7618. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207618

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al Bander, Zahraa, Marloes D. Nitert, Aya Mousa, and Negar Naderpoor. 2020. "The Gut Microbiota and Inflammation: An Overview" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 20: 7618. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207618

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