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Article

A Model Depicting the Retail Food Environment and Customer Interactions: Components, Outcomes, and Future Directions

1
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Department of Population Health Nursing Science, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
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Department of Health Services, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, WA 98198, USA
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Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
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Law Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20001, USA
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Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Department of Community Health and Health Behavior, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
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Department of Public Health Sciences, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207591
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 16 October 2020 / Published: 19 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retail Strategies to Support Healthy Eating)
The retail food environment (RFE) has important implications for dietary intake and health, and dramatic changes in RFEs have been observed over the past few decades and years. Prior conceptual models of the RFE and its relationships with health and behavior have played an important role in guiding research; yet, the convergence of RFE changes and scientific advances in the field suggest the time is ripe to revisit this conceptualization. In this paper, we propose the Retail Food Environment and Customer Interaction Model to convey the evolving variety of factors and relationships that convene to influence food choice at the point of purchase. The model details specific components of the RFE, including business approaches, actors, sources, and the customer retail experience; describes individual, interpersonal, and household characteristics that affect customer purchasing; highlights the macro-level contexts (e.g., communities and nations) in which the RFE and customers behave; and addresses the wide-ranging outcomes produced by RFEs and customers, including: population health, food security, food justice, environmental sustainability, and business sustainability. We believe the proposed conceptualization helps to (1) provide broad implications for future research and (2) further highlight the need for transdisciplinary collaborations to ultimately improve a range of critical population outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: grocery store; restaurant; environment; retail; food purchasing behavior; dietary intake grocery store; restaurant; environment; retail; food purchasing behavior; dietary intake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Winkler, M.R.; Zenk, S.N.; Baquero, B.; Steeves, E.A.; Fleischhacker, S.E.; Gittelsohn, J.; Leone, L.A.; Racine, E.F. A Model Depicting the Retail Food Environment and Customer Interactions: Components, Outcomes, and Future Directions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7591. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207591

AMA Style

Winkler MR, Zenk SN, Baquero B, Steeves EA, Fleischhacker SE, Gittelsohn J, Leone LA, Racine EF. A Model Depicting the Retail Food Environment and Customer Interactions: Components, Outcomes, and Future Directions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7591. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207591

Chicago/Turabian Style

Winkler, Megan R., Shannon N. Zenk, Barbara Baquero, Elizabeth A. Steeves, Sheila E. Fleischhacker, Joel Gittelsohn, Lucia A. Leone, and Elizabeth F. Racine. 2020. "A Model Depicting the Retail Food Environment and Customer Interactions: Components, Outcomes, and Future Directions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 20: 7591. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207591

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