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Open AccessReview

Factors Contributing to CO Uptake and Elimination in the Body: A Critical Review

1
Bartlett School of Environment, Energy and Resources, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
2
Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine, National Defence Medical Centre, Taipei 114, Taiwan
3
Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Didcot OX11 0RQ, UK
4
Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020528
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is an important public health issue around the world. Research indicates that many factors may be related to the rate of CO uptake and elimination in the human body. However, some factors related to CO uptake and elimination are considered controversial. Relatively little attention has been devoted to review and synthesis of factors affecting CO uptake and elimination. Purpose: This paper provides a critical scoping review of the factors and divides them into four aspects, including environmental, demographic, physiological and treatment factors. Methods: We searched the scientific databases for research that has proposed a mathematical equation as a synthesis of quantities related to CO poisoning, CO elimination, CO uptake, CO half-life, CO uptake and elimination and their relationships. After excluding the studies that did not meet the study criteria, there were 39 studies included in the review and the search was completed before 16 December 2019. Results and conclusion: This review discusses most of the factors that impact the rate of CO uptake and elimination. Several factors may be related to CO uptake and elimination, such as CO concentration, the duration of exposure to CO, age, sex, exercise, minute ventilation, alveolar ventilation, total haemoglobin mass and different treatments for CO poisoning. Although some potential factors were not included in the review, the findings are useful by presenting an overview for discussing factors affecting CO uptake and elimination and provide a starting point for further study regarding strategies for CO poisoning and the environmental standard of CO.
Keywords: carbon monoxide; CO uptake; CO elimination carbon monoxide; CO uptake; CO elimination
MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, K.-T.; Leonardi, G.S.; Croxford, B. Factors Contributing to CO Uptake and Elimination in the Body: A Critical Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 528.

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