Next Article in Journal
Analysis Factors That Influence Escalator-Related Injuries in Metro Stations Based on Bayesian Networks: A Case Study in China
Next Article in Special Issue
The Equity of Health Care Spending in South Korea: Testing the Impact of Publicness
Previous Article in Journal
Rome, a Policy without Politics: The Participatory Process for a Metropolitan Scale Food Policy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sustainable Agriculture by Increasing Nitrogen Fertilizer Efficiency Using Low-Resolution Camera Mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Review

Urbanization and Waterborne Pathogen Emergence in Low-Income Countries: Where and How to Conduct Surveys?

1
Laboratoire d’Hygiène des Aliments et de l’Environnement, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, BP 1274, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
2
MARBEC (IRD, IFREMER, UM2 and CNRS), University Montpellier, 34095 Montpellier, France
3
Centre de Recherche Océanologique (CRO), Abidjan BPV 18, Ivory Coast
4
IRD UMR 912 SESSTIM, INSERM-IRD-Université de Marseille II, 13000 Marseille, France
5
ISPED Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux II, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France
6
Département de Parasitologie et des insectes vecteurs, Institut Pasteur Paris, 75015 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020480
Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 11 January 2020
A major forthcoming sanitary issue concerns the apparition and spreading of drug-resistant microorganisms, potentially threatening millions of humans. In low-income countries, polluted urban runoff and open sewage channels are major sources of microbes. These microbes join natural microbial communities in aquatic ecosystems already impacted by various chemicals, including antibiotics. These composite microbial communities must adapt to survive in such hostile conditions, sometimes promoting the selection of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains by gene transfer. The low probability of exchanges between planktonic microorganisms within the water column may be significantly improved if their contact was facilitated by particular meeting places. This could be specifically the case within biofilms that develop on the surface of the myriads of floating macroplastics increasingly polluting urban tropical surface waters. Moreover, as uncultivable bacterial strains could be involved, analyses of the microbial communities in their whole have to be performed. This means that new-omic technologies must be routinely implemented in low- and middle-income countries to detect the appearance of resistance genes in microbial ecosystems, especially when considering the new ‘plastic context.’ We summarize the related current knowledge in this short review paper to anticipate new strategies for monitoring and surveying microbial communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: waterborne diseases; drug resistance; urbanization; surface water; plastics; metagenomic waterborne diseases; drug resistance; urbanization; surface water; plastics; metagenomic
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bastaraud, A.; Cecchi, P.; Handschumacher, P.; Altmann, M.; Jambou, R. Urbanization and Waterborne Pathogen Emergence in Low-Income Countries: Where and How to Conduct Surveys? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 480. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020480

AMA Style

Bastaraud A, Cecchi P, Handschumacher P, Altmann M, Jambou R. Urbanization and Waterborne Pathogen Emergence in Low-Income Countries: Where and How to Conduct Surveys? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(2):480. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020480

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bastaraud, Alexandra, Philippe Cecchi, Pascal Handschumacher, Mathias Altmann, and Ronan Jambou. 2020. "Urbanization and Waterborne Pathogen Emergence in Low-Income Countries: Where and How to Conduct Surveys?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 2: 480. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020480

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop