Next Article in Journal
Cybervictimization, Self-Concept, Aggressiveness, and School Anxiety in School Children: A Structural Equations Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Quality Assessment of Three Types of Drinking Water Sources in Guinea-Bissau
Previous Article in Journal
Health Risks Related to Domestic Violence against Roma Women
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characterisation of Microbial Community Associated with Different Disinfection Treatments in Hospital hot Water Networks
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Impact of Freeze–Thaw Cycles on Die-Off of E. coli and Intestinal Enterococci in Deer and Dairy Faeces: Implications for Landscape Contamination of Watercourses

Biological & Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196999
Received: 3 August 2020 / Revised: 21 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
Characterising faecal indicator organism (FIO) survival in the environment is important for informing land management and minimising public health risk to downstream water users. However, key gaps in knowledge include understanding how wildlife contribute to catchment-wide FIO sources and how FIO survival is affected by low environmental temperatures. The aim of this study was to quantify E. coli and intestinal enterococci die-off in dairy cow versus red deer faecal sources exposed to repeated freeze–thaw cycles under controlled laboratory conditions. Survival of FIOs in water exposed to freeze–thaw was also investigated to help interpret survival responses. Both E. coli and intestinal enterococci were capable of surviving sub-freezing conditions with the faeces from both animals able to sustain relatively high FIO concentrations, as indicated by modelling, and observations revealing persistence in excess of 11 days and in some cases confirmed beyond 22 days. Die-off responses of deer-derived FIOs in both faeces and water exposed to low temperatures provide much needed information to enable better accounting of the varied catchment sources of faecal pollution and results from this study help constrain the parameterisation of die-off coefficients to better inform more integrated modelling and decision-making for microbial water quality management. View Full-Text
Keywords: faecal pollution; indicator organisms; microbial contamination; land management; water quality; wildlife faeces faecal pollution; indicator organisms; microbial contamination; land management; water quality; wildlife faeces
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Afolabi, E.O.; Quilliam, R.S.; Oliver, D.M. Impact of Freeze–Thaw Cycles on Die-Off of E. coli and Intestinal Enterococci in Deer and Dairy Faeces: Implications for Landscape Contamination of Watercourses. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6999.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop