This retrospective cohort study aimed to analyze overall and cause-specific mortality risk in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Lithuania. Information on the diagnosis of T2DM and glucose-lowering medication was obtained from the National Health Insurance Fund database, causes of death–from death certificates. Sex, age, and calendar period-standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. In addition, 89,512 patients were followed-up between 2010 and 2017, contributing to the observation period of 592,321 person-years. Overall mortality risk was increased for both sexes (overall SMR = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.37). Greatest mortality risk was in the age group of 40–49 years at diabetes diagnosis (SMR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.60–1.76) and among those who had died before the age of 50 (SMR = 22.04, 95% CI 18.82–25.81). Patients treated with insulin only had the highest SMR (2.43, 95% CI 2.32–2.55). Mortality risk increased with increasing diabetes duration and was higher in women in all these groups. The highest cause-specific SMRs were infection-related causes (SMR = 1.44), particularly septicemia (SMR = 1.78), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR = 1.42), especially ischemic heart (SMR = 1.46) and cerebrovascular diseases (SMR = 1.38), as well as diseases of the digestive system (SMR = 1.35). Cancer mortality risk was elevated for women (SMR = 1.13), but not for men (SMR = 0.93). In conclusion, people with T2DM had an excess mortality risk, which was higher in women compared to men, younger people, in those who were diagnosed with T2DM at a younger age, had longer diabetes duration, and who required treatment with insulin.
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