Next Article in Journal
Increased Mortality Risk in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lithuania
Previous Article in Journal
In Search of Concrete Outcomes—A Systematic Review on the Effectiveness of Educational Interventions on Reducing Acute Occupational Injuries
Previous Article in Special Issue
Brain Activity during Different Throwing Games: EEG Exploratory Study
Open AccessArticle

Gender, Physical Self-Perception and Overall Physical Fitness in Secondary School Students: A Multiple Mediation Model

1
Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, Campus of Melilla, University of Granada, 52071 Melilla, Spain
2
Department of Education and Specific Didactics, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón, Spain
3
Department of Education Sciences, Faculty of Education, Universitary Campus of Cartuja, University of Granada, s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Specific Didactics, Faculty of Education, University of Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186871
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
Background: Physical self-perception is often related with better physical fitness perception in adolescents. Moreover, it is an important social cognitive perspective to provide suitable mental health in this population. However, this relationship is unequal between boys and girls. The physical fitness is a marker of health in young population. The aims of the present study were the following: (1) to compare physical self-perception and self-reported overall physical fitness (OPF) between boys and girls (gender) and body mass index (BMI) status, and (2) to determine the mediating role of all physical self-perception subscales (except physical condition) and BMI status in the link between gender and OPF in adolescent students. Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 85 adolescent students of secondary school between 12 and 17 years of age; 41 were boys (Mage = 14.6, SD = 1.7) and 44 were girls (Mage = 14.4, SD = 1.6). Adolescent participants completed all clinical characteristics by body composition measures (age, body weight, body height, and BMI). Physical self-perception was assessed by the physical self-perception profile (PSPP) whereas the international fitness scale (IFIS) was used to predict the self-reported OPF of adolescents in the present study. Results: Gender (boys and girls) differed significantly in all PSPP subscales and OPF, whereas the BMI status (underweight = 19 students, normal weight = 53 students, overweight/obese = 13 students) showed significant differences in all clinical characteristics, physical condition (PSPP), and OPF. A multiple mediation analysis was performed using bias corrected bootstrap. This multiple mediation analysis revealed that all PSPP subscales were significant mediators between gender and OPF: attractive body (p = 0.013), sport competence (p = 0.009), physical strength (p = 0.002), and self-confidence (p = 0.002). The total direct effect of gender on OPF was significant (p = 0.002). Moreover, the multiple mediation estimated a completely standardized indirect of X on Y for attractive body (effect = 0.109), sport competence (effect = 0.066), physical strength (effect = 0.130), and self-confidence (effect = 0.193). Conclusions: These findings contribute to understanding the link between gender and OPF in adolescent students and the mediation of physical self-perception and OPF in this relationship. In addition, strategies focused to improve self-confidence and physical self-perception are necessary in female adolescent students, because boys showed better physical self-perception in all PSPP subscales. Girls are a risk group because they report low physical self-confidence with their respective insecurity feelings and psychological disorders. Thus, personal physical self-perception must be considered as an important social cognitive perspective to provide suitable mental health in children and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-confidence; physical capacity; body image; sport ability; strength perceived; self-esteem self-confidence; physical capacity; body image; sport ability; strength perceived; self-esteem
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Montero, P.J.; Chiva-Bartoll, O.; Baena-Extremera, A.; Hortigüela-Alcalá, D. Gender, Physical Self-Perception and Overall Physical Fitness in Secondary School Students: A Multiple Mediation Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6871.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop