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Article

Association of Blood Cadmium with Cardiovascular Disease in Korea: From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2013 and 2016

Division of Brain Diseases, Center for Biomedical Sciences, Korea National Institute of Health, 187 Osongsaengmyeong2-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do 28159, Korea
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176288
Received: 8 July 2020 / Revised: 23 August 2020 / Accepted: 26 August 2020 / Published: 28 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Exposure and Health Risk Assessment 2020)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, although the mortality rate has declined with improved technology and risk factor control. The incidence rate of stroke, one of the CVDs, is increasing in young adults, whereas it is decreasing in the elderly. The risk factors for CVD may differ between young adults and the elderly. Previous studies have suggested that cadmium was a potential CVD risk factor in the overall and middle-aged to elderly populations. We assessed the associations between cadmium and CVD events in the Korean population aged 20–59 years using the 2008–2013 and 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based cross-sectional study. Among 10,626 participants aged 20–59 years, those with high blood cadmium (BCd) level (>1.874 µg/L, 90th percentile) were higher associated with stroke and hypertension (stroke: odds ratio (OR), 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–5.56; hypertension: OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.20–1.76). The strongest association between high blood cadmium concentrations and hypertension was among current smokers. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) was not associated with high blood cadmium level. These findings suggest that high blood cadmium levels may be associated with prevalent stroke and hypertension in the Korean population under 60 years of age. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; stroke; hypertension; non-elderly population; KNHANES cadmium; stroke; hypertension; non-elderly population; KNHANES
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, J.; Yun, S.-m.; Kim, M.; Koh, Y.H. Association of Blood Cadmium with Cardiovascular Disease in Korea: From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2013 and 2016. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6288. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176288

AMA Style

Jeong J, Yun S-m, Kim M, Koh YH. Association of Blood Cadmium with Cardiovascular Disease in Korea: From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2013 and 2016. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6288. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176288

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jeong, Jihyun, Sang-moon Yun, Minkyeong Kim, and Young H. Koh 2020. "Association of Blood Cadmium with Cardiovascular Disease in Korea: From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2013 and 2016" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 17: 6288. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176288

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