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Article

Wider Dental Care Coverage Associated with Lower Oral Health Inequalities: A Comparison Study between Japan and England

1
Department of Oral Care for Systemic Health Support, Health Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo 113-8510, Japan
2
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 7HB, UK
3
Department of Disaster Medicine and Dental Sociology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, Yokosuka 238-8580, Japan
4
Department of Policy Studies, Aichi Gakuin University, Nisshin 470-0195, Japan
5
Department of Social Preventive Medical Sciences, Center for Preventive Medical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260-0856, Japan
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Department of Gerontological Evaluation, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu 474-8511, Japan
7
Department of International and Community Oral Health, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155539
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Inequalities in the World)
Countries with different oral health care systems may have different levels of oral health related inequalities. We compared the socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among older adults in Japan and England. We used the data for adults aged 65 years or over from Japan (N = 79,707) and England (N = 5115) and estimated absolute inequality (the Slope Index of Inequality, SII) and relative inequality (the Relative Index of Inequality, RII) for edentulism (the condition of having no natural teeth) by educational attainment and income. All analyses were adjusted for sex and age. Overall, 14% of the Japanese subjects and 21% of the English were edentulous. In both Japan and England, lower income and educational attainment were significantly associated with a higher risk of being edentulous. Education-based SII in Japan and England were 9.9% and 26.7%, respectively, and RII were 2.5 and 4.8, respectively. Income-based SII in Japan and England were 9.2% and 14.4%, respectively, and RII were 2.1 and 1.9, respectively. Social inequalities in edentulous individuals exist in both these high-income countries, but Japan, with wider coverage for dental care, had lower levels of inequality than England. View Full-Text
Keywords: international comparison; edentulism; oral health inequality; universal health coverage; slope index of inequality; relative index of inequality international comparison; edentulism; oral health inequality; universal health coverage; slope index of inequality; relative index of inequality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ito, K.; Cable, N.; Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, K.; Kondo, K.; Osaka, K.; Tsakos, G.; Watt, R.G.; Aida, J. Wider Dental Care Coverage Associated with Lower Oral Health Inequalities: A Comparison Study between Japan and England. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155539

AMA Style

Ito K, Cable N, Yamamoto T, Suzuki K, Kondo K, Osaka K, Tsakos G, Watt RG, Aida J. Wider Dental Care Coverage Associated with Lower Oral Health Inequalities: A Comparison Study between Japan and England. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(15):5539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ito, Kanade, Noriko Cable, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Kayo Suzuki, Katsunori Kondo, Ken Osaka, Georgios Tsakos, Richard G. Watt, and Jun Aida. 2020. "Wider Dental Care Coverage Associated with Lower Oral Health Inequalities: A Comparison Study between Japan and England" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 15: 5539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155539

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