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Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Cultured Ginseng Roots Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Mouse Macrophages and Adipocytes

1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul 01133, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4716; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134716
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 28 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is a traditional medicine widely used in Asia. Due to low reward and high costs, wild ginseng is produced by a plant cell culture technique called cultured ginseng roots (GR). The health benefits of wild ginseng have been well studied, but the potential health effects of GR are largely unknown. Thus, we investigated the role of a GR extract (GRE) on inflammatory responses. We firstly investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of GRE in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. GRE (100 μg/mL) dampened pro-inflammatory gene expression, cytokine release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. These anti-inflammatory responses by GRE were confirmed in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), which showed that GRE could inhibit inflammation with the induction of antioxidant levels. LPS was recently reported to impair mitochondrial bioenergetics in mouse macrophages. We next measured the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR), determining mitochondrial function. LPS treatment downregulated OCR; however, GRE partially restored the LPS-mediated energy homeostasis defects. Furthermore, GRE-pretreated conditioned media (CM) obtained from mouse macrophages decreased CM-mediated adipocyte inflammation. Collectively, these data suggested that GRE attenuated LPS-induced inflammation, and it might be partially involved in the protection from mitochondrial dysfunction in macrophages and adipocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultured wild ginseng roots; inflammation; reactive oxygen species; antioxidant; macrophages; adipocytes; mitochondrial dysfunction cultured wild ginseng roots; inflammation; reactive oxygen species; antioxidant; macrophages; adipocytes; mitochondrial dysfunction
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Park, H.J.; Jo, S.-M.; Seo, S.H.; Lee, M.; Lee, Y.; Kang, I. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Cultured Ginseng Roots Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Mouse Macrophages and Adipocytes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4716.

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