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Chocolate, “Food of the Gods”: History, Science, and Human Health

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Section of Hygiene, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Medical School, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Medical School, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
3
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science (DISSPA), University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola 165/a, 70126 Bari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4960; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244960
Received: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Food Hygiene)
Chocolate is well known for its fine flavor, and its history began in ancient times, when the Maya considered chocolate (a cocoa drink prepared with hot water) the “Food of the Gods”. The food industry produces many different types of chocolate: in recent years, dark chocolate, in particular, has gained great popularity. Interest in chocolate has grown, owing to its physiological and potential health effects, such as regulation of blood pressure, insulin levels, vascular functions, oxidation processes, prebiotic effects, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. However, further translational and epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm available results and to evaluate other possible effects related to the consumption of cocoa and chocolate, verifying in humans the effects hitherto demonstrated only in vitro, and suggesting how best to consume (in terms of dose, mode, and time) chocolate in the daily diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: chocolate; cocoa; Food of the Gods; Theobroma cacao; nitric oxide; cardiovascular effects chocolate; cocoa; Food of the Gods; Theobroma cacao; nitric oxide; cardiovascular effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Montagna, M.T.; Diella, G.; Triggiano, F.; Caponio, G.R.; Giglio, O.D.; Caggiano, G.; Ciaula, A.D.; Portincasa, P. Chocolate, “Food of the Gods”: History, Science, and Human Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4960. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244960

AMA Style

Montagna MT, Diella G, Triggiano F, Caponio GR, Giglio OD, Caggiano G, Ciaula AD, Portincasa P. Chocolate, “Food of the Gods”: History, Science, and Human Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(24):4960. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244960

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montagna, Maria T., Giusy Diella, Francesco Triggiano, Giusy R. Caponio, Osvalda D. Giglio, Giuseppina Caggiano, Agostino D. Ciaula, and Piero Portincasa. 2019. "Chocolate, “Food of the Gods”: History, Science, and Human Health" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 24: 4960. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244960

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