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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020166

A Review and Update on Waterborne Viral Diseases Associated with Swimming Pools

Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena, 299-00161 Rome, Italy
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Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recreational Water Illnesses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [305 KB, uploaded 9 January 2019]

Abstract

Infectious agents, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and molds, may threaten the health of swimming pool bathers. Viruses are a major cause of recreationally-associated waterborne diseases linked to pools, lakes, ponds, thermal pools/spas, rivers, and hot springs. They can make their way into waters through the accidental release of fecal matter, body fluids (saliva, mucus), or skin flakes by symptomatic or asymptomatic carriers. We present an updated overview of epidemiological data on viral outbreaks, a project motivated, among other things, by the availability of improved viral detection methodologies. Special attention is paid to outbreak investigations (source of the outbreak, pathways of transmission, chlorination/disinfection). Epidemiological studies on incidents of viral contamination of swimming pools under non-epidemic conditions are also reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: adenovirus; enterovirus; hepatitis A virus; norovirus; swimming pool; waterborne disease adenovirus; enterovirus; hepatitis A virus; norovirus; swimming pool; waterborne disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bonadonna, L.; La Rosa, G. A Review and Update on Waterborne Viral Diseases Associated with Swimming Pools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 166.

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