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Practical Guidance for Interventions in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet and Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition

1
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
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Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Agrochemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences. University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
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Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
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Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Atacama, Avda. Copayapu 2862, III Region, Copiapó 1530000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183481
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 29 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(1) Objective: to establish practical guidance for the design of future clinical trials in MS (metabolic syndrome) patients aged 18 and older, based on a systematic review of randomized clinical trials connecting diet, physical exercise and changes in body composition. (2) Method: this systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCT) is based on the guidelines recommended by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). Criteria of selection: ≥18 years of age; patients diagnosed with MS; intervention programs including diet, physical exercise and/or modifications in the style of life as treatment, as well as the magnitude of changes in body composition (BC); randomized clinical trial published between 2004 and 2018. (3) Results: the multidisciplinary interventions describe major changes in BC, and the recurring pattern in these clinical trials is an energy reduction and control in the percentage of intake of macronutrients along with the performance of regularly structured exercise; the most analyzed parameter was waist circumference (88.9% of the trials), followed by body weight (85.2%), BMI (77.8%) and body fat (55.6%). (4) Conclusions: The analysis of the information here reported sheds light for the design of future clinical trials in adults with MS. The best anthropometric parameters and units of measurement to monitor the interventions are related to dietary and physical exercise interventions. A list of practical advice that is easy to implement in daily practice in consultation is here proposed in order to guarantee the best results in changes of body composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; diabetes; diet; exercise; body composition; weight and fat metabolic syndrome; diabetes; diet; exercise; body composition; weight and fat
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MDPI and ACS Style

Albert Pérez, E.; Poveda González, M.; Martínez-Espinosa, R.M.; Molina Vila, M.D.; Reig García-Galbis, M. Practical Guidance for Interventions in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet and Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3481. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183481

AMA Style

Albert Pérez E, Poveda González M, Martínez-Espinosa RM, Molina Vila MD, Reig García-Galbis M. Practical Guidance for Interventions in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet and Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(18):3481. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183481

Chicago/Turabian Style

Albert Pérez, Enrique, Marina Poveda González, Rosa M. Martínez-Espinosa, Mariola D. Molina Vila, and Manuel Reig García-Galbis. 2019. "Practical Guidance for Interventions in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet and Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 18: 3481. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183481

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