Next Article in Journal
Enhanced Simultaneous Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in A Denitrifying Biological Filter Using Waterworks Sludge Ceramsite Coupled with Iron-Carbon
Next Article in Special Issue
Maternal Undernutrition and Breast Milk Macronutrient Content Are Not Associated with Weight in Breastfed Infants at 1 and 3 Months after Delivery
Previous Article in Journal
Perspectives on Modifying Attentional Biases Amongst Individuals with Tobacco Use Disorder Using Technology: A Review
Article

WIC Participation and Breastfeeding after the 2009 WIC Revision: A Propensity Score Approach

1
Department of Sociology, California State University-Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA 90747, USA
2
Department of Sociology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
3
School of Community and Environmental Health, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152645
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 21 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal-Child Health and Life Course Perspective)
In this study, we examined the association between participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the 2009 revisions. Four-thousand-three-hundred-and-eight WIC-eligible children younger than 60 months were included from the 2005–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We compared two birth cohorts with regard to their associations between WIC participation and being ever-breastfed and breastfed at 6 months. We estimated the average effect of the treatment for the treated to assess the causal effect of WIC participation on breastfeeding based on propensity score matching. The results showed that WIC-eligible participating children born between 2000 and 2008 were significantly less likely than WIC-eligible nonparticipating children to ever receive breastfeeding (p < 0.05) or to be breastfed at 6 months (p < 0.05). Among children born between 2009 and 2014, WIC-eligible participating children were no longer less likely to ever receive breastfeeding compared to WIC-eligible nonparticipating children; the gap remained in breastfeeding at 6-months (p < 0.05). The disparities in prevalence of ever breastfed between WIC-eligible participants and nonparticipants have been eliminated since the 2009 WIC revision. More efforts are needed to improve breastfeeding persistence among WIC-participating mother–infant dyads. View Full-Text
Keywords: women, infants, and children (WIC); breastfeeding; NHANES; propensity score women, infants, and children (WIC); breastfeeding; NHANES; propensity score
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, K.; Wen, M.; Reynolds, M.; Zhang, Q. WIC Participation and Breastfeeding after the 2009 WIC Revision: A Propensity Score Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152645

AMA Style

Li K, Wen M, Reynolds M, Zhang Q. WIC Participation and Breastfeeding after the 2009 WIC Revision: A Propensity Score Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(15):2645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152645

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Kelin, Ming Wen, Megan Reynolds, and Qi Zhang. 2019. "WIC Participation and Breastfeeding after the 2009 WIC Revision: A Propensity Score Approach" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 15: 2645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152645

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop