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Open AccessArticle

Maternal Undernutrition and Breast Milk Macronutrient Content Are Not Associated with Weight in Breastfed Infants at 1 and 3 Months after Delivery

1
School of Medicine, Akita University, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita city 010-8543, Japan
2
Department of Environmental Health Science and Public Health, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita city 010-8543, Japan
3
Department of Nutrition, Teikyo University Hospital, 2-11-1Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan
5
Department of Pediatrics, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan
6
Department of Health and Dietetics, Teikyo Heisei University, 2-51-4 Higashi Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170-8445, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183315
Received: 23 July 2019 / Revised: 3 September 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal-Child Health and Life Course Perspective)
This study examined whether maternal nutritional intake and breast milk macronutrient content influence the weight of breastfed infants. We investigated 129 healthy mothers with singleton babies born from July 2016 to December 2017 in a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Information was obtained by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire at 1 (valid response n = 92; mean age, 34 years) and 3 (n = 57) months after delivery. Breast milk was sampled at 1 and 3 months and the macronutrient contents were analyzed. The average pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy were 20.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2 and 9.6 ± 3.7 kg, respectively. At 1 month, average maternal calorie intake was 1993 ± 417 kcal/day, which was lower than the intake recommended by Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes for breastfeeding mothers. There were no significant differences with regard to maternal calorie and protein intake, and breast milk macronutrient content between breastfed infants with weight above and below the 25th percentile of its distribution at both 1 and 3 months. This study suggests that suboptimal calorie intake by breastfeeding mothers and breast milk macronutrient content were not associated with weight of their infants at 1 and 3 months after delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast milk; breastfed infant; infant weight; macronutrient content; undernutrition breast milk; breastfed infant; infant weight; macronutrient content; undernutrition
MDPI and ACS Style

Minato, T.; Nomura, K.; Asakura, H.; Aihara, A.; Hiraike, H.; Hino, Y.; Isojima, T.; Kodama, H. Maternal Undernutrition and Breast Milk Macronutrient Content Are Not Associated with Weight in Breastfed Infants at 1 and 3 Months after Delivery. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3315.

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