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Travelers to U.S.: Zika Virus Knowledge, Attitudes, and Determinants of Practices in the Middle East—Insights for Future Awareness Campaigns

1
Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
2
Department of Immunology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK
3
Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142517
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 14 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
PDF [755 KB, uploaded 14 July 2019]

Abstract

Travelers act as sentinels for the spread of Zika virus. Imported Zika cases and the presence of Zika virus-transmitting mosquitoes have been documented in the Middle East. However, data on travelers’ knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Zika and its prevention measures within the Middle East are scarce. This study aimed to address this issue in a sample of Jordanian and non-Jordanian travelers to U.S. in Jordan. A paper-based questionnaire was distributed to 301 travelers to U.S. in Queen Alia International airport, Amman, Jordan. Only 2.7% of the travelers knew that Zika is associated with birth defects. A total of 10.4% of the participants knew that the bite of infected mosquitoes is a route of Zika transmission. Only 12.6% of respondents correctly identified Zika prevention measures. The level of education and future plans for pregnancy were significantly associated with a high knowledge score (R2 = 0.140, p-value < 0.005). Although 76.2% of the travelers perceived Zika as a health threat, only 11.2% believed in the efficacy of the prevention measures. Formulation of educational campaigns within Middle Eastern countries and development of awareness strategies regarding Zika and its prevention within the airports are required. This is particularly essential with the upcoming 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar.
Keywords: Aedes; arboviruses; Middle East; traveler health; Zika virus Aedes; arboviruses; Middle East; traveler health; Zika virus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Abu-rish, E.Y.; Elayeh, E.R.; Browning, M.J. Travelers to U.S.: Zika Virus Knowledge, Attitudes, and Determinants of Practices in the Middle East—Insights for Future Awareness Campaigns. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2517.

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