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Association between Ambient Particulate Matter 2.5 Exposure and Mortality in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1
Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou 333, Taiwan
2
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou 333, Taiwan
3
College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
4
Department of Nephrology and Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou 333, Taiwan
5
Department of Nephrology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142490
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Air pollution is a severe public health problem in Taiwan. Moreover, Taiwan is an endemic area for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study examined the effect of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) exposure on mortality in this population. A total of 1003 patients with HCC treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2000 and 2009 were included in this study. At the end of the analysis, 288 (28.7%) patients had died. Patients with HCC living in environments with PM2.5 concentrations of ≥36 µg/m3 had a higher mortality rate than patients living in environments with PM2.5 concentrations of <36 µg/m3 (36.8% versus 27.5%, p = 0.034). The multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that PM2.5 ≥ 36 µg/m3 was a significant risk factor for mortality (1.584 (1.162–2.160), p = 0.004). A nonlinear relationship was observed between the odds ratio and PM2.5. The odds ratio was 1.137 (1.015–1.264) for each increment of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 or 1.292 (1.030–1.598) for each increment of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5. Therefore, patients with HCC exposed to ambient PM2.5 concentrations of ≥36 µg/m3 had a 1.584-fold higher risk of death than those exposed to PM2.5 concentrations of <36 µg/m3. Further studies are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; particulate matter; air pollution; mortality; hepatocellular carcinoma PM2.5; particulate matter; air pollution; mortality; hepatocellular carcinoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.-H.; Hsieh, S.-Y.; Huang, W.-H.; Wang, I.-K.; Yen, T.-H. Association between Ambient Particulate Matter 2.5 Exposure and Mortality in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2490.

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