Next Article in Journal
Association between Ambient Particulate Matter 2.5 Exposure and Mortality in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Previous Article in Journal
Do Older People with Diabetes Meet the Recommended Weekly Physical Activity Targets? An Analysis of Objective Physical Activity Data
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Spatial Clusters of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate and Their Association with Polluted Zones in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area

1
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud. Monterrey 64710, Mexico
2
Casa Azul, A.C. San Pedro Garza Garcia 66230, Mexico
3
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias. Monterrey 64849, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142488
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burden of Disease Attributable to Air Pollution)
  |  
PDF [6610 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

This study examines the spatial structure of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and its association with polluted areas in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA). The Nearest Neighbor Index (NNI) and the Spatial Statistical Scan (SaTScan) determined that the CLP cases are agglomerated in spatial clusters distributed in different areas of the city, some of them grouping up to 12 cases of CLP in a radius of 1.2 km. The application of the interpolation by empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK) and the inverse distance weighted (IDW) method showed that 95% of the cases have a spatial interaction with values of particulate matter (PM10) of more than 50 points. The study also shows that 83% of the cases interacted with around 2000 annual tons of greenhouse gases. This study may contribute to other investigations applying techniques for the identification of environmental and genetic factors possibly associated with congenital malformations and for determining the influence of contaminating substances in the incidence of these diseases, particularly CLP. View Full-Text
Keywords: cleft lip and palate; industrial pollution; PM10; spatial clusters cleft lip and palate; industrial pollution; PM10; spatial clusters
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gasca-Sanchez, F.M.; Santos-Guzman, J.; Elizondo-Dueñaz, R.; Mejia-Velazquez, G.M.; Ruiz-Pacheco, C.; Reyes-Rodriguez, D.; Vazquez-Camacho, E.; Hernandez-Hernandez, J.A.; Lopez-Sanchez, R.C.; Ortiz-Lopez, R.; Olvera-Posada, D.; Rojas-Martinez, A. Spatial Clusters of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate and Their Association with Polluted Zones in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2488.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top